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Peter K. LeMaire
Bernice A. LeMaire
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Editorial: Amistad and Education in The African Diaspora
by Dr. Gloria Emeagwali
Dr. Tunde Zack-Williams delivered the
First in the Annual Amistad Lecture Series on November 14, 2003 at the
Torp Theater, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain. Dr.
Tunde Zack-Williams, Professor of Sociology at Central Lancashire University,
Preston, was chosen for this distinguished lecture because of his outstanding
academic work on Africa and the African Diaspora. His research on diamond
- mining in Sierra-Leone provides us with a definitive study of the
intersections between indigenous mining activities and British colonial
corporations such as the Consolidated African Selection Trust (CAST),
which assumed a monopoly in mining and prospecting in Sierra Leone until
1936. Dr. Zack-Williams eloquently discusses the South African De Beers
mining group and indigenous African interest groups such as the Kono
Progressive Movement. More recently he has analyzed the significance
of child soldiers in the recent conflict in Sierra Leone including the
role of conflict diamonds in the war that evolved. Dr. Zack-Williams
has published extensively on the African Diaspora in Liverpool in particular
and the United Kingdom in general.
We are pleased to include the First Amistad Lecture in the current issue
of Africa Update.
Dr. Gloria Emeagwali
Chief Editor, AfricaUpdate
and Education in The African Diaspora:
The First in the Annual Amistad Lecture Series, CCSU
by Alfred B. Zack-Williams, PhD
Professor of Sociology
University of Central Lancaster,
Distinguished Colleagues, Fellow Students, Ladies and Gentlemen. May
I start off by thanking the organizers of this symposium for inviting
me to give the First Annual Amistad Lecture. In particular, I want to
thank Dr Charles Mate-Kole, the Director of the Africana Center and
Dr. Gloria Emeagwali, the Chair of the Amistad Committee for their effort
in getting me over here. Indeed, I feel quite honored. I am aware of
the academic links between our two institutions. Every year I have students
from Central Connecticut State University among our growing number of
international students. Your students are often surprised when I start
mentioning the names of distinguished colleagues from your institution
with whom I am acquainted.
My own history is very much tied up with Segbe Pieh Cinque, partly because
like him, I am from that country which the Portuguese initially called
Sierra Lyoa, or Lion Mountains. Pedro da Cintra and his crew who came
down the West African Coast around 1462 in search of the sea root to
the East (India), must have arrived during the rainy season and were
greeted by the roaring of thunder and flashes of lightning, and with
the series of mountainous landscape that constitute the peninsular of
Freetown. They were convinced that the land they had arrived at was
a land of lions. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth, as
the vegetation of coastal Sierra Leone could not sustain savannah-type
predators like lions.
As we celebrate Amistad, a monumental occasion in Africana or dare I
say in American history, it is important to note two things:
- The state of Africa in the pre-Columbian era.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to sail down the African
coast in search of the sea route to the spice trade of the East.
By 1462, Pedro da Cintra had carved his name on a giant mural on
Freetown harbor. Da Cintra and his crew continued their journey
and became one of the few Europeans to witness the Empire of Benin
in contemporary Nigeria at its peak. He wrote of Benin as a city
with very wide and clean streets, unlike anything he had encountered
in Europe and that the people were also well clad. This on the eve
of the outbreak of the destructive Triangular Trade from which Africa
is yet to recover.
- Secondly, in Segbe Pieh Cinque I recognize a
spirit of determination of not giving up in the face of adversaries,
or when others have written you off. I recognize a spirit of Harambee,
a spirit of togetherness. I want to refer to this as the spirit
of the Amistad. Just recently among Sierra Leoneans there has been
a debate as to the ethnic origin of Segbe Pieh Cinque. The consensus
is that he came from the Bullom or Sherbro ethnic group from Bonthe
Island in the Southwestern corner of Sierra Leone. Pieh in Bullom
indicates that he was the second born son in that family, and as
a seafaring people, Segbe Pieh Cinque must have learnt seafaring
activities from various fishing adventures by the time he was captured
into slavery, in April 1839. Perhaps, it is this seemingly rudimentary
knowledge of the southern Atlantic coast that enabled him to take
control of the Amistad after the Spanish Captain had been killed.
I emphasize that for our young
people to inculcate the Spirit of the Amistad if they have to become
relevant in what others have called the post-modern world. They must
also be aware of the great heritage from which they descend. I am concerned
with the conspicuous absence of young African men in public spaces.
I use the term African young men to refer to African-Caribbean men in
Britain and African American men. It seems to me that African men are
in crisis by their failure to encompass the spirit of Segbe Pieh.
As a sociologist I am acutely aware of the role education plays in social
mobility. If I could draw from a source I know quite a bit about, Continental
Africa, where I taught for a number of years following my doctoral work.
Many of the African leaders that we as African Diasporic people champion
today, such as: Nelson Mandela, Kwame Nkrumah, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Cheik
Anta Diop, Leopold Senghor, Jomo Kenyatta, Samora Machel, Eduardo Mondlane
and Amilcar Cabral, were all descendants of peasant households, who
seized the opportunities, however small within colonialism to educate
themselves and in many cases in order to liberate their own people.
These great African nationalists were all united in the belief, yes
belief 'that the pen is mightier than the sword'. This is precisely
because education provides us (as members of society) with the skills,
tools, and knowledge to function in fast changing technological societies.
Clearly those who fail to seize the time soon find that they lack the
vocational and intellectual skills to become employable, thus swelling
the rank of the chronic unemployed.
The German sociologist, Max Weber wrote about social closure. By this
he meant the strong tendency for social groups to seize upon certain
social criteria as marks of distinction, and as a means of setting themselves
apart from outsiders. These criteria include such things as gender,
race, cultural background and nationality, educational level, and common
occupation. By using some criteria to close themselves off from others,
the members of a social group attempt to monopolize resources that will
bring them economic success and social esteem. The worst example I can
think of was the state organized slavery that became known as apartheid,
where vast amount of money was spent on educating white children in
South Africa and only a fraction was spent on African education.
Another vehicle of social closure is educational credential. The argument
is that by achieving a certain level of education (possessing certain
types of diploma) the members of a group hope to establish a minimum
credential for entry into certain occupations with high payoffs in terms
of privilege and prestige. In the context of the United States, this
is what a British Sociologist, Frank Parkin has to say:
'Educational credentials have become the new property in America. That
nation, which has attempted to make the transmission of real and personal
property difficult, has contrived to replace it with an inheritable
set of values concerning degrees and diplomas, which will most certainly
reinforce the formidable class barriers that remain, even without the
right within families to pass benefices to their children'.
Writers such as the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu refer to this
as cultural capital, which gives progenies of these groups some kind
of head start in life. At the risk of being misunderstood, the above
argument is not to suggest that educational credential is the only means
of social closure. There are other means, some of which I have already
referred to above. Pedro Noguera has recently argued that for Black
males in the US education 'now increasingly serves as a primary agent
for reproducing their marginality'.
The problem of the invisibility of Black men and young Black men in
particular in public space has engaged the attention of researchers
for a number of years. In the United States, Cornel West and Pedro Noguera
have written of the 'crisis of the Black male', the endangered, at risk
and marginalized group. Noguera has also drawn attention to the low
number of African American males enrolled in higher educational institutions
and has called for a supportive and nurturing environment in order to
keep retention figures up. Incidentally, this is not an African American
male problem, but an African Diaspora concern. Indeed, a few years ago
I published a paper in the journal of the National Association of Black
Social Workers, entitled: 'Ethnicity and Gender in Access Education:
Some Comments on The Experiences of African-Caribbean Men Within the
Academy'. This was followed up by a polemical piece with inspiration
from the work of Cornel West, in the Journal of Social work Education,
entitled, 'Nihilism and the Social Construction of Black Sexuality'.
Both studies examined in the position of African Caribbean men in Britain.
Now, the absence of Black men in public spaces is mirrored by the over
representation within the criminal justice system and within institutional
psychiatry. Booker writes of the disproportional involvement of African
American male within the criminal justice system; and the ever changing,
yet ever-present process of "criminalisation” that has entrapped
Black men through out history, thus creating a major barrier to their
collective development. The Nehemiah Consulting Group has drawn attention
to the fact that African American males are 14 times more likely to
be murdered than their white counter parts.
Thus it might not seem such
an exaggeration to talk of crisis of the Black male. In what follows
I want to focus on three points:
- Further evidence of the crisis
- Implication for gender relationship
- An attempt to explicate this situation
away from the usual patronizing and anthologizing explanations based
on demonizing the Black family and Black women in particular.
Noguera has pointed out that to talk of a crisis is to imply a deviation
from a more stable norm, suggesting 'a period of temporary urgency,
or even a short-term emergency, and not a prolonged persistent degenerative
condition' (p.1). Whilst it is always easy to be nostalgic of a distant
past, and the growth of a Black middle class in both Britain and the
US tend to mask the problem of a crisis. However, there are some telling
statistics. In Britain the unemployment rate among Black men is at least
twice that of their White counterpart and they are underrepresented
in professional and managerial position. According to Noguera the situation
in the US is not much different. He noted that African American males
earn on average 73% of the income of White males and that they too are
underrepresented in the professional and managerial positions. In education
on both sides of the Atlantic Black males are at least four times more
likely than white males to be excluded from school and in the US 9 times
more likely to be sent to special classes. In the US Noguera points
to the decline in number of Black male entrants to colleges and universities.
As he observed:
'For a growing numbers of Black males, prison rather than college is
a more probable destination during adolescence and young adulthood.
In 1995, one out of three Black males (versus one out of every 10 white
males) between the ages of 18 and 30 were either incarcerated or in
some way ensnared by the criminal justice system. …In California,
the percentage recently increased to 40%…'
Implications for Gender Relations
Before looking at some explanatory reasons for the poor showing in educational
achievement of Black males, we need to consider the gender implications.
This is of course a very sensitive area, particularly as it involves
personal relationships. Since both Britain and America are patriarchal
societies, this new development raises a number of challenge issues.
Patriarchal societies always assume a household headed by men: with
men as the breadwinner and women's income at best supplementing the
male income. Now since the evidence is pointing to Black women as heads
of many households, this in itself is a challenge to domestic patriarchy.
In my view any challenge to domestic or public patriarchy is to be welcomed.
However, the fact that jobs are difficult to come by for Black males
will inevitably produce status displacement in such relationships as
well as the strain in the ability to carry out the essential functions
of a partner and more important a father. In my view this is equivalent
to the loss of status, which many working class men go through soon
after retirement. The danger is that this process has a tendency to
self reproduction as fathers who are busy hunting for 'non-existing'
jobs will not be around either to help in the socialization of the offspring,
thereby failing to provide a reference group for the young, who in turn
may show anomic regards for the values of the group. Thus boys who come
from household where only Mummy reads to them would soon realize that
reading is gendered process and that the significant other (male) in
his life, do not read. This soon becomes a self-perpetuating process.
Already there are anecdotal evidences of intra-ethnic cross-gendered
questioning of the status quo. Women complain of being tired with their
double role as mothers, breadwinners and father-surrogates. In my view
Black men in the Diaspora need to seek the spirit of Amistad. Segbe
Pieh. They never gave up, they pooled together in the spirit of what
Jomo Kemyatta used to call Harambee, meaning togetherness.
In this quest for Black men to fight back against the social exclusion
and increase their self-worth, Black men will have to work with Black
women as equal partners, in the manner in which Black feminists have
noted that Black men have been their partners and protectors against
racists and racism.
Trying to Explicate Black Male Educational Underachievement: Beyond
or orthodox explanations of Black underachievement have tended to blame
the victims of racism and to pathologies Black culture. This is true
of the work of people Jensen (in the US) and Eysenck (in the UK) and
other IQ testers who over- emphasize the role of heritage in educational
achievement and down play the role of environmental factors. The problem
with this type of analysis is that it is tautological: Black and working
class people underachieve because they have poor pool of achievers;
white people and middle class people overachieve because they have a
high genetic pool to foster achievement.
Recently this rather circular argument has been resuscitated by the
underclass theorists such as Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein who
not only point to what they saw as differential educational performance
between African-American and White students. Using Armed Forces Qualification
Test data for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth they concluded
that intelligence is distributed unequally among various ethnic groups.
The poor educational achievement on the part of African American students
is put down to hereditary factors. They went on to argue that there
would be diminishing returns for African- Americans from the impact
of additional years of education on earnings or intelligence. In their
view social policy efforts designed to improve African American students'
academic achievement through more years of education or affirmative
action are waste of limited educational resources.
These findings are colonial and must be strongly rejected. They reminding
of the 'backward slopping supply curve theory' invented by colonial
anthropologists in the Dutch East Indies. (Explain). Clearly, such theories
do not help policy makers other than to further marginalize vulnerable
groups. In direct opposition to social pathologies I want to draw attention
to explanations based on the social structural position of Black people
within contemporary capitalist societies.
In the early 1980s the British Government commissioned a series of report
(the Rampton and Swann Report) Education for All, which pointed differential
attainment between White, African Caribbean and Asian children. In my
view for the first time an official report put racism as an important
causal factor in the underachievement of Black children. Other factors
alluded to include: teachers' perception of Black kids; ethnocentric
curriculum and the need for strong pastoral care for Black children.
The result was an increase support for non-standard entrants to higher
education, support for access programmes and minority languages in the
curriculum and greater link between home and school.
In January 2002, one of the few African Caribbean women in the British
Parliament, Ms Diane Abbott made an important intervention when she
pointed to the fact (which many IQ testers and other social pathology
theories fail to realize) that the educational achievements of Black
boys in general at infant and junior schools continue to be high, and
in many cases outstripping their white counterparts. However, by the
time they arrive at secondary school, age 12 their performance fall
dramatically, and the rate of exclusion rises dramatically. Ms Abbott's
explanation is that the fact that Black boys on average tend to be bigger
than their White counterparts fosters a persona, which seemingly appears
intimidating to young White female teachers, who quickly interprets
this as a sign of disobedience, insolence and aggression.
Diane Abbott's argument, which raises the question of the public persona
of young Black men leads me on to my contention that the attack on Black
intellectual ability can be explicated through an analysis of the concept
of nihilism and the social construction of Black male sexuality. In
my view this concepts have strong heuristic function in locating certain
causal factors in black male educational underachievement.
According to Cornel West:
'Nihilism is to be understood …not as a philosophical doctrine
that there are no rational grounds for legitimate standards or authority;
it is far more, the lived experience of coping with a life of horrifying
meaninglessness, hopelessness, and lovelessness. This notion of nihilism
differs fundamentally from the Marxist notion of alienation. Though
both are the product of capitalism, the former has a specific racial
dimension. As West observes, it is the product of a fast paced market
driven culture, which is obsessed with sex, and is fuelled white supremacist
ideas relating to Black sexuality. The net effect is that it is deracinating
and highly radicalized in its impacts. In this respect 'nihilism' is
a much more severe threat than alienation, the generic product of capitalist
According to West nihilism produces 'a numbing detachment from others',
'a self-destructive disposition towards the world', and 'self-hatred'
leading to life without meaning, hope, and love breed(ing) a cold hearted,
mean-spirited outlook that destroys both the individual and others'.
The visitation of nihilism is not new to African Diaspora conditioning.
It was triggered off by the destructive effect of the slave trade, heightened
by the brutality of the middle passage and institutionalized by the
inhumanity of slavery. Yet in these early struggles, African people
were able to construct and consolidate civil societies, communal networks,
which not only offered meanings to their lives, but also created a barrier
against collective self-destruction.
However, the impact of endemic white supremacist beliefs unleashed by
imperialism led to the breaching of the cultural structures and institutions
of Black civil society. By undermining traditional; values of sacrifice
and selflessness among the poorest, in favor of hedonism, self-gratification
and machismo, imperialism laid the basis for the demise of Black self-belief
and spiritual enrichment. Of more significance is the fact that white
supremacist thoughts and representations which permeate Western societies
and culture, attack the intelligence and ability of Black people as
well as Black beauty, leading to deep-seated anger and despair of Western
sense of justice.
This attack on Black intellectual ability can be located within the
realm of the social construction of Black sexuality, and the resulting
caricature of Black sexuality from this contraction. Clearly knowledge
of the social construction of Black sexuality holds an important key
to an understanding of the nihilist threat, of which Black male educational
under-achievement is a symptom. The analysis of Black sexuality is nothing
new. A number of writers such as Eldridge Cleaver, Patricia Hill Collins,
Robert Staples, Isaac Julien, Kobena Mercer and Cornel West have tried
to analyze Black sexuality by locating how this affects the black condition.
The problem with much of these writings is that they tend to be specific
to either quest for a specific Black feminist perspective, (important
as this project is with little reference to the Black male condition;
or, when they relate to the latter, they tend to deal with issues of
Black male sexual orientation, important though these issues are in
societies riddles with homophobic and sexist hysteria.
In his writing on black sexuality, Cornel West draws attention to the
disgust and rejection associated with black social spaces such as Black
churches, mosques and Black families. He points out that: 'they obsessively
condemned those places where Black sexuality were flaunted: the street,
the clubs and dance halls'.
In the case of America, West argues
that this avoidance of Black social spaces is the result of the premium
Black institutions place on survival. The need for 'accommodation' with
White America means that those Black institutions and individuals who
threaten or subvert should be avoided. Thus he notes:
'…Struggling black institutions made a Faustian pact with
White America: avoid any substantive engagement with Black sexuality
and your survival on the margins of American society is at least, possible'.
If West's analysis is correct then, we will argue that here lays the
Pandora box of Black oppression and underachievement, particularly black
male underachievement. West's analysis owes its inspiration to the work
of Cleaver, who argues that white America in its domination over Black
America has tended to monopolize the Mind whilst relegating the Body
to Black America. Thus, the all powerful white male Cleaver categorizes
as the 'omnipotent Administrator' and the dis-empowered black male the
'Super masculine Menial', divested of mind, but overcompensated with
Body, brute power, strength and muscles.Central to white racism is the
fear of Black sexuality. As West has argued, this fear is premised on
the fact that it is a source of Black empowerment, or as he puts it,
it is 'a form of black power over which whites have little control….
it proceeds as if whites don't matter'.
Given this Manicheanism based on the social construction of Black sexuality,
there are two major implications for black men. In the first place given
the fact that they are socially invested with the Body, whilst being
divested of Mind, this means that a Black male in the academy remains
a contradiction. Secondly, the fear of Black sexuality means that the
black male despite the association with muscles and brute power is denied
the essence and seat of masculinity: sex.' This form of Black power
is premised on black males 'stylizing their bodies over space and time
in such a way that their bodies reflect their uniqueness and provoke
fear in others.' Outside of this narrow stylistic arena, Black men are
thought incapable of making any serious contributions. This is particularly
true of young Black men within the Academy, that 'alien place' with
a clear, but fixed ideas of who belongs, and who can benefit from its
The 'Alien' Academy
Many African Caribbean men who fail to complete their undergraduate
programmes talk of the 'pressure', and the fact that they felt alienated
within these institutions. For them the ethos and values of the institution
do not validate their lived experiences. Some express the view that
the institution 'was not yet ready for black men.' When asked to explain
this assertion, the student noted, what is happening out there is not
taken seriously around here (the University). Many Black men have to
carry the baggage of out there, largely to do with racial and gender
stereotypes e.g. Stop & Search. Their over-representation within
criminal statistics often catches up on them as lectures are missed
because of court appearance. It is important to note that not all issues
surrounding Black men in the academy are race centered; there are issues
of class and in some cases nationality. Thus one can envisage a situation
in which Black middle class youngsters would be better prepared to deal
with life in a racist academy.
Ladies and gentlemen, our young people
need to dig deep and with the spirit of the Amistad they will find the
basis of a new dawn.
Return to Table of Contents
- Olayemi Akinwumi
- Olayemi Akinwumi is a professor at the University
of Ilorin, Nigeria, West Africa. He just published a biography on
the Aku Of Wukari, a descendant of Kwararafa Kingdom. He served as
a Visiting Scholar at the Institut fur Ethnologie, Freie Universitat
- Zenebworke Bissrat
- Zenebworke Bissrat served for several years as Senior
Management Expert at the Ethiopian Management Institute, Addis Ababa.
She is at present associated with the CMRS, Ethiopian Catholic Church,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
- Paulus Gerdes
- Paulus Gerdes is the Rector of Mozambique's Universidade
Pedagogoco Maputo, Mozambique. He has extensive publications on African
mathematics and is the Chair of the Commission on the History of Mathematics
- Mosebjane Malatsi
- Mosebjane Malatsi is a Senior Policy Analyst at
the Development Bank of Southern Africa, based in Johannesburg. He
is a leading member of the Pan-African Congress.
Return to Table of Contents
- Alfred Zack-Williams
- Alfred Zack-Williams is from Sierra Leone. He is
a professor of Sociology and he teaches in the Department of Historical
and Critical Studies at the University of Central Lancaster, UK. He
is also a member of the Editorial Board of the Review of African Political
Economy (ROAPE), United Kingdom.