Methodology 2007

Selection of Cities for Inclusion

Cities were selected based on their 2006 U.S. Census population figures. The study was limited to those cities with a population of 250,000 or larger as of July 1, 2006.

Newspaper Data

For the newspaper database, the Daily and Sunday Circulation figures for the March 2007 reporting period from the Publisher's Statements were obtained from the Audit Bureau of Circulation website ( Those numbers were divided by the 2006 U.S. Census population figures for the cities resulting in a ratio, which was then rank ordered. Four cities (Anaheim, CA, Arlington, TX, Plano, TX, and Aurora, CO) had no newspaper published in their city that participates in the ABC publishers statements. Additionally, one of the major newspapers in Chicago, IL (i.e., The Sun-Times) was being censured by ABC, so the figures from that newspaper are from the previous 26 weeks ending September 25, 2005. Similarly, the major newspaper in Colorado Springs, CO (i.e., The Gazette) was being censured by ABC, and its figures are from the previous 26 weeks ending September 30, 2006.

Internet Data

Figures for the number of internet terminals at public libraries were obtained from the Fiscal Year 2005 Public Libraries Survey from the National Center for Education Statistics website. Figures for purchased a book online were obtained from Scarborough Research's February 2006-March 2007 USA+2007 Release. Cities were ranked according to the number of books purchased online per 10,000 people. Please note that for 2007, Scarborough did not have data for the following cities: Long Beach, CA; Mesa, AZ; Plano, TX; Corpus Christi, TX; Aurora, CO; Arlington, TX; New Britain, CT; Anaheim, CA; Omaha, NE; Riverside, CA; Anchorage, AK; Santa Ana, CA; and Newark, NJ. Hence, all of those cities were ranked last. For Virginia Beach, the Norfolk/Portsmouth/Newport News DMA was used. Other combination DMAs included: Hartford/New Haven; Albuquerque/Santa Fe; Cleveland/Akron; Colorado Springs/Pueblo; Dallas/Ft. Worth; Fresno/Visalia; Miami/Ft. Lauderdale; Minneapolis/St. Paul; Raleigh/Durham; Sacramento/Stockton/Modesto; San Francisco/Oakland/San Jose; Seattle/Tacoma; Tampa/St. Petersburg; and Wichita/Hutchinson.

Figures for Number of Unique Visitors and Number of Webpage Views to a city's internet-version newspaper were provided by a collaborative effort of the Audit Bureau of Circulations, the Newspaper Association of America, and Scarborough Research. Primary sources included: Omniture SiteCatalyst; Nielsen Net Ratings Netview; comScore; SageMetrics; and HBX Analytics. The data can be found at This particular database did not have information on internet newspaper viewership for several cities and their respective newspapers. As such, these cities were all ranked similarly last on these two variables. The cities were: Albuquerque, NM; Anaheim, CA; Arlington, TX; Aurora, CO; Bakersfield, CA: Buffalo, NY; Cincinnati, OH; El Paso, TX; Las Vegas, NV; Long Beach, CA; Mesa, AZ; Oakland, CA; Omaha, NE; Pittsburgh, PA; Plano, TX; San Jose, CA; and Stockton, CA.

Magazines and Journals Data

Figures for this database were gathered from the web edition of the National Directory of Magazines (2007) for magazines and the Standard Periodical Directory (2007) for journals through the website of Oxbridge Communications. Figures were obtained online from these sources on October 17, 2007. Only those journals with a total circulation of 500 or more were included, and only those magazines with a total circulation of 2,500 or more were included. All categories, target audiences, media types, and frequencies of publication were included.

Booksellers and Stores Data

For this database, information was gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau website ( (2006 population)), as well as Yellow Pages, Inc. ( (2007)) for information on retail, rare, and used booksellers. Also, the American Booksellers Association site ( (2007)) was used for independent bookseller information. Please note that for figures reported for retail, these did not include any specialty, adult, or religious bookstores, and the stores were those listed at these database sites on September 25, 2007.

Educational Attainment Data

For this database, information was gathered from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Factfinder website (, specifically from the results of the American Community Survey, 2006. The Educational Attainment data were gathered from the geographic subset listed as, Principal City of a Metropolitan Statistical Area. The data were released from the U.S. Census Bureau on August 28, 2007.

Library Data

Information regarding library staff per capita, volumes per capita, circulation per capita, and branches per capita was gleaned from National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) database, specifically the Library Statistics Program and its Public Libraries Survey FY2005.

Please note that the number of library staff listed for Chicago, IL reflects only librarians, as the total library staff figures were not reported.

Information regarding the number of students and media specialists comes from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) database, specifically the Public School District data for the 2005-2006 school year. For the Media Specialists total, the number of Librarians/Media Specialists were combined with the number of Library/Media Support staff.

Please note that the number of media specialists for Washington, DC was obtained from the latest available source (NCES CCD 2004-2005 data).

School districts labeled as Regular School Districts in population centers labeled City: Large in a MSA- Central City metropolitan status were included.

Several cities had multiple school districts that met the criteria. Here is a list of those cities and the school districts

Anaheim, CA

  • Anaheim City
  • Anaheim Union
  • Magnolia Elementary
  • Savanna Elementary

Bakersfield, CA

  • Bakersfield City Elementary
  • Fruitvale Elementary
  • Greenfield Union Elementary
  • Kern Union High
  • Panama-Buena Vista Union
  • Rosedale Union Elementary

Colorado Springs, CO

  • Academy 20
  • Cheyenne Mountain 12
  • Colorado Springs 11
  • Harrison 2

Corpus Christi, TX

  • Calallen ISD
  • Corpus Christi ISD
  • Flour Bluff ISD
  • London ISD
  • Tuloso-Midway ISD
  • West Oso ISD

El Paso, TX

  • El Paso ISD
  • Socorro ISD
  • Ysleta ISD

Fresno, CA

  • Central Unified
  • Fresno Unified
  • West Fresno Elementary

Houston, TX

  • Houston ISD
  • North Forest ISD
  • Spring Branch ISD

Indianapolis, IN

  • Indianapolis Public
  • MSD Decatur Township
  • MSD Perry Township
  • MSD Pike Township
  • MSD Warren Township
  • MSD Washington Township
  • MSD Wayne Township

Kansas City, MO

  • Center 58
  • Hickman Mills C-1
  • Kansas City 33
  • North Kansas City 74
  • Park Hill

Oklahoma City, OK

  • Crooked Oak
  • Oklahoma City
  • Western Heights

Omaha, NE

  • Omaha Public
  • Millard Public
  • Westside Community

Phoenix, AZ

  • Alhambra Elementary
  • Balsz Elementary
  • Cartwright Elementary
  • Creighton Elementary
  • Fowler Elementary
  • Isaac Elementary
  • Madison Elementary
  • Murphy Elementary
  • Osborn Elementary
  • Paradise Valley Unified
  • Pendergast Elementary
  • Phoenix Elementary
  • Phoenix Union
  • Roosevelt Elementary
  • Washington Elementary
  • Wilson Elementary

Portland, OR

  • David Douglas SD40
  • Parkrose SD3
  • Portland SD

Riverside, CA

  • Alvord Unified
  • Riverside Unified

Sacramento, CA

  • Del Paso Heights Elementary
  • Natomas Unified
  • North Sacaramento Elementary
  • Robla Elementary
  • Sacramento City Unified

San Antonio, TX

  • Alamo Heights ISD
  • Edgewood ISD
  • Fort Sam Houston ISD
  • Harlandale ISD
  • North East ISD
  • Northside ISD
  • San Antonio ISD
  • South San Antonio ISD

San Jose, CA

  • Alum Rock Union Elementary
  • Berryessa Union Elementary
  • Cambrian Elementary
  • Campbell Union High
  • East Side Union High
  • Evergreen Elementary
  • Franklin-McKinley Elementay
  • Luther Burbank
  • Moreland Elementary
  • Mt. Pleasant Elementary
  • Oak Grove Elementary
  • Orchard Elementary
  • San Jose Unified
  • Union Elementary

Stockton, CA

  • Lincoln Unified
  • Stockton City Unified

Tucson, AZ

  • Sunnyside Unified
  • Tucson Unified

Tulsa, OK

  • Tulsa
  • Union

Additionally, several cities' information was based on county school district information reported. They included:

Charlotte, NC

Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District

Honolulu, HI

Hawaii Department of Education

Jacksonville, FL

Duval County School District

Las Vegas, NV

Clark County School District

Lexington, KY

Fayette County School District

Louisville, KY

Jefferson County School District

Miami, FL

Dade County School District

Raleigh, NC

Wake County School District

Tampa, FL

Hillsborough County School District