GEOG 272: QUIZ 1

 

Questions from Chapter 1

 

1. Geography is described as

a. an Earth science

b. a human science

c. a physical science

d. a spatial science

 

2. A principal methodology governing geographic inquiry

a. is behavioral analysis

b. involves spatial analysis

c. uses chronological organization

d. is field work

 

3. Which of the following best describes the current emphasis in the field of physical geography?

a. understanding soil development

b. modeling of economic interrelationships among countries

c. the study of weather

d. understanding how Earth processes interact to produce the phenomena observed in nature

 

4. Which of the following compose the fundamental duality in the field of geography?

a. physical versus human/cultural

b. physical versus economic

c. economic versus political

d. political versus environmental

 

5. Which of the following is an example of a system?

a. a leaf

b. a river drainage basin

c. a midlatitude cyclonic storm

d. all of these are examples of systems

e. none of these are examples of systems

 

6. What type of feedback maintains stability in a system, i.e., what type of feedback keeps a system functioning properly?

a. positive b. negative c. neutral

 

7. If a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?

a. positive

b. negative

c. neutral

d. Not enough information is given to indicate what type of feedback has occurred.

 

8. Which of the following is correctly matched?

a. equilibrium; balance of inputs and outputs

b. steady state equilibrium; small fluctuations about an average condition

c. dynamic equilibrium; small fluctuations about an average condition that changes gradually over time

d. all of the above are correctly matched

 

9. The carbon dioxide that is being added to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels is an example of an ________ variable to the atmosphere and an ________ variable from the lithosphere.

a. input; input b. input; output c. output; output d. output; input

 

10. Which of the following is true of models?

a. They are abstract representations of the world.

b. They are idealized representations of the world.

c. They are simplified representations of the world.

d. All of the above are true.

e. a and b only

 

11. The three inorganic Earth realms are the

a. hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere

b. thermosphere, lithosphere, heterosphere

c. atmosphere, geoid, homosphere

d. stratosphere, magnetosphere, and troposphere

 

12. Living systems are considered

a. biotic b. inorganic c. part of the lithosphere d. abiotic

 

13. The realization that the Earth was a sphere

a. did not occur in Europe until the first voyages of Columbus

b. had to wait until the modern era (1800s)

c. was first made by Pythagoras, 580-500 BC

d. was made by Isaac Newton

 

14. A value for Earth's circumference was first calculated by

a. Columbus

b. Pythagoras

c. modern satellite measurements

d. a librarian at Alexandria named Eratosthenes

 

15. The oblateness of the Earth occurs at the

a. poles b. equator c. subtropics d. prime meridian

 

Questions from Chapter 2

 

16. Relative to the speed of light, Earth is, on average, only 8 minutes and 20 seconds from the Sun. a. True b. False

 

17. Earth is at perihelion in early January when it is closest to the Sun.

a. True b. False

 

18. Earth is farthest from the Sun at perihelion and closest at aphelion.

a. True b. False

 

19. Energy is liberated within the Sun's interior through a process known as nuclear fusion.

a. True b. False

 

20. Sunspots vary in a cycle from 7 to 17 years, averaging 11 years from a maximum to maximum peak. a. True b. False

 

21. The correct order for wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, from shortest to longest is: gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, radio waves, visible light, and ultraviolet. a. True b. False

 

22. The amount of the solar energy received by a given location is not really constant--it varies depending upon the season and the Earth's distance from the sun. a. True b. False

 

23. Rotation is Earth's motion on its axis; revolution is its motion about the Sun.

a. True b. False

 

24. Earth's axis is tilted 23.5 from a perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.

a. True b. False

 

26. All places on Earth receive the same period of day and night on March 21.

a. True b. False

 

27. The duration of dawn and twilight tends to increase with increasing latitude.

a. True b. False

 

28. Weather (rain, fog, storms, etc.) occurs primarily in the troposphere.

a. True b. False

 

29. Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and the ozonosphere. a. True b. False

 

30. The heterosphere has a layered structure, whereas the homosphere occurs as an even mixture of gases. a. True b. False

 

31. The principal gases of the homosphere (by volume) are nitrogen, helium, and argon.

a. True b. False

 

32. The ozone layer protects Earth's surface from most of the incoming ultraviolet radiation.

a. True b. False

 

33. Both nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide are principally produced by automobiles.

a. True b. False

 

34. Photochemical smog results from the interaction of sunlight with the combustion products of automobiles. a. True b. False

 

35. More than half the air pollution in the U.S. is produced by automobiles.

a. True b. False

 

36. Air pressure is produced through the motion, size, and number of air molecules.

a. True b. False

 

37. The atmosphere exerts an average force of approximately 1 kg/cm2 (14.7 lbs/in2) at sea level. a. True b. False

 

Questions from Chapter 3

 

38. The passage of shortwave and longwave energy through the atmosphere or water is an example of

a. absorption

b. transmission

c. refraction

d. insolation

 

39. The insolation received at Earth's surface is

a. usually low at the equator

b. generally greater at high latitudes because of daylength

c. greatest over low-latitude deserts with their cloudless skies

d. inadequate to sustain life

 

40. Which two gases are primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect because of their ability to absorb infrared energy?

a. oxygen and hydrogen

b. ozone and dust

c. nitrogen and oxygen

d. water vapor and carbon dioxide

 

41. When light passes from one medium to another

a. transmission happens

b. Rayleigh scattering is the predominant effect

c. refraction occurs--a process that is important to the formation of rainbows

d. it is usually not affected physically

 

42. When light passes from space into the atmosphere, it changes ___________ in a process known as _______________.

a. color; reflection

b. color; refraction

c. color; Rayleigh scattering

d. speed and direction; reflection

e. speed and direction; refraction

 

43. The reflective quality of a surface is known as its

a. conduction b. absorption c. albedo d. scattering

 

44. Which of the following has the highest albedo?

a. forests b. asphalt c. dry, light sandy soils d. fresh snow

 

45. If the surface of the earth were to suddenly turn white, the temperature of the planet

would __________ because __________ insolation would be absorbed.

a. decrease; less b. decrease; more c. increase; less d. increase; more

 

46. Earth's average overall albedo is

a. 31 percent b. 51 percent c. 69 percent d. unknown

 

47. Which of the following has the lowest albedo?

a. pack ice off the coast of Antarctica

b. snow that is polluted and several days old

c. dry, light sandy soils

d. forests

e. the Moon's surface in full sunlight

 

48. An increase in the Earth's albedo would

a. warm the planet

b. cool the planet

c. have no effect on the planet's temperature because insolation is constant

 

49. The sky is blue because

a. the albedo of the Earth is such that blue light is absorbed more than other wavelengths

b. the Earth's atmosphere allows only blue light to enter

c. the atmosphere scatters blue light more than any other visible wavelength

d. the majority of radiation coming from the sun is in the blue end of the visible spectrum

 

50. On a cloudy day, Earth's surface receives

a. direct insolation b. diffuse radiation c. direct radiation d. a reduced daylength