Select the alternative (a, b, c, d, or e) that best answers each of the questions below. Bring your answers to class on Tuesday, April 8th 2003.


In case inclement weather does not allow for class, study the materials in chapters 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 for test 2 on Thursday, 10th April 2003. The test will not be postponed so plan accordingly.



Questions from Chapter 5 of the Textbook


1. Collision-coalescence and the Bergeron process both act to

a. increase the relative humidity of the air

b. increase the specific humidity of the air

c. increase the size of water droplets and ice crystals

d. none of the above


2. Clouds that have vertical development and produce precipitation are called

a. stratocumulus

b. cumulonimbus

c. nimbostratus

d. cumulus


3. Which of the following are correctly matched?

a. flat or layered clouds = cumulus

b. puffy or globular clouds = cirroform

c. puffy or globular clouds = cumuliform

d. wispy clouds = water droplets


4. Which of the following is a middle-level cloud type?

a. cirrostratus

b. stratocumulus

c. cumulonimbus

d. altostratus


5. Which of the following is true regarding cirrostratus clouds?

a. They look like patches of cotton balls, or cotton balls arranged in lines.

b. The sun's outline is just visible through these clouds.

c. They form a veil of ice crystals that creates a halo around the Moon.

d. They are sharply outlined, and billowy.


6. Florida has the highest thunderstorm frequency in the U.S. because

a. the Florida peninsula heats to high temperatures during the day

b. mT air masses surround the peninsula

c. frequent, strong cold fronts occur in the Florida area

d. all of the above

e. a and b only


7. A fog that develops when warm, moist air blows over a cold current (such as the California Current) is an example of ___________ fog.

a. radiation

b. convection

c. advection

d. evaporation


8. The scientific study of the atmosphere is

a. weather

b. climate

c. meteorology

d. geography


9. Which of the following is false regarding air masses?

a. An air mass initially reflects the characteristics of its source region.

b. They are homogenous in terms of temperature and humidity.

c. They may dominate half the depth of the troposphere.

d. Air masses tend to maintain their original characteristics as they migrate from their source regions.


10. A well-developed, newly formed cP air mass would have which of the following characteristics?

a. cold temperatures

b. clear skies

c. high pressure

d. all of the above

e. none of the above


11. The Intertropical Convergence Zone is characterized by

a. cold, dry rising air

b. cold, dry sinking air

c. warm, dry rising air

d. warm, wet rising air


12. Orographic refers to

a. convection stimulated principally by local heating

b. lifting along the edges of conflicting air masses

c. air mass modification and the formation of secondary air masses

d. forced uplift due to the presence of a physical barrier


13. The wetter, intercepting slope of a mountain is termed the _______________ slope, whereas the drier, downwind slope is termed the ____________ slope.

a. left side; right side

b. west side; east side

c. windward; leeward

d. leeward; windward


14. Which of the following statements is true?

a. When air is cooled, its ability to hold moisture decreases.

b. One would expect more precipitation near the equator than near the poles.

c. One would expect winters in Siberia to be very dry, with little precipitation.

d. One would expect precipitation to occur when moist air rises over a mountain.

e. All of these are true.


15. The area along a warm front is best described by which of the following?

a. wind shifting and strong, warm air abruptly lifted by colder air

b. warm air being lifted gently and steadily over cooler air

c. an area of clear skies and north winds

d. mT air mass, warm, wet, and humid from the Gulf states


16. Storm tracks across the United States and Canada generally

a. shift to the south in winter, and toward the north in summer

b. move east to west

c. move south to north

d. exist in spring and fall only


17. Summer thunderstorms in the southern U.S. are usually produced by towering ___________ clouds that form by ___________.

a. nimbostratus; convection

b. nimbostratus; frontal uplift

c. cumulonimbus; frontal uplift

d. cumulonimbus; convergence

e. cumulonimbus; convection


18. Which of the following cloud types is associated with tornado development?

a. cumulus

b. nimbostratus

c. altocumulus

d. cumulonimbus


19. Hurricanes die when they move over land because

a. the Coriolis force is not sufficient to sustain them over land

b. the land temperature is not warm enough to sustain the low pressure system

c. evaporation and subsequent condensation are no longer sufficient to sustain them

d. all of the above

e. none of the above


Questions from Chapter 6


20. An area defined by characteristic, long-term weather patterns is called

a. a biome

b. an average weather place

c. an ecosystem

d. a climatic region


21. Based on principles discussed earlier in the course, you know that the annual temperature range of places located in the interior of a continent is _________ those located along the coast at the same latitude.

a. greater than

b. less than

c. the same as


22. In which of the following areas would the least amount of precipitation occur?

a. in areas affected by maritime air masses

b. along windward coasts

c. in low-pressure regions

d. on the leeward side of a mountain range in the interior of a continent


23. Based on principles discussed earlier in the course, you know that areas dominated by maritime air masses will be relatively __________, and that those dominated by cT air masses will be relatively __________.

a. wet; wet

b. wet; dry

c. dry; wet

d. dry; dry


24. "Hot and wet" temperature and precipitation patterns are characteristic of

a. rain forests in the equatorial tropics

b. humid continental climates that have mild summers

c. highland climates

d. cold steppe climates


25. A genetic classification system can be based on, among other factors, __________.

a. the interaction of air masses

b. statistics or other data used to determine general categories

c. mean annual temperature

d. mean annual precipitation


26. Which of the following lists the correct, generalized sequence of Kppen climates from the equator to the poles?

a. H-->D-->C-->B-->A

b. H-->B-->C-->D-->E

c. A-->B-->C-->D-->E

d. E-->D-->C-->B-->A

e. B-->A-->D-->E-->C


27. Mesothermal climates are identified by the letter

a. H

b. B

c. C

d. P

e. E


28. The second letter in the Kppen classification system (f, s, w) refers to

a. the season with the highest temperature

b. the season with lowest temperature

c. the frost-free season

d. the seasonal distribution of rainfall

e. the seasonal variation in wind intensity


29. A climate that is mesothermal, and that has a long, hot, dry summer would be designated by which of the following?

a. Af

b. BS

c. Csa

d. Cwa

e. Dwa


30. The bulk of the Amazon River drainage basin is dominated by which one of the following Koppen climate classifications?

a. Am

b. Aw

c. Af

d. EF


31. The wet season monsoon of SE Asia occurs during the season of __________ sun due to the presence of the __________ over the continent. (low sun = "winter" and high sun = "summer")

a. low; subtropical high

b. low; ITCZ

c. high; subtropical high

d. high; ITCZ


32. Which of the following is false regarding the Csa classification?

a. summers are hot

b. 70% of the precipitation occurs in the winter months

c. it is also called the Mediterranean dry-summer climate

d. the bulk of precipitation occurs in the summer months


33. Potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation in all parts of which climate type?

a. tropical savanna

b. Mediterranean summer-dry

c. all B climates

d. polar climates


34. Which type of plants grow in desert climates?

a. taiga

b. boreal forests

c. xerophytic

d. chaparral


35. Greenhouse gases act to __________ temperatures by __________ thermal infrared radiation.

a. increase; trapping

b. increase; reflecting

c. decrease; blocking

d. decrease; trapping


36. The climate of an area can be classified in different ways depending upon the criteria used to define it.

a. True

b. False


37. A climograph is a mechanical instrument used for measuring climates.

a. True

b. False


38. The ITCZ migrates with the high Sun and influences the Am climates.

a. True

b. False


Questions from Chapter 7


39. Uniformitarianism assumes that

a. Earth is quite young and is shaped by dramatic events

b. catastrophic episodes have regularly occurred

c. the same physical processes we see today are a key to understanding the processes that have been operating throughout geologic time

d. mountains, plains, and canyons formed by catastrophic events


40. Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in the mantle, from bottom to top?

a. lower mantle; upper mantle, aesthenosphere

b. aesthenosphere, mantle, upper mantle

c. upper mantle, aesthenosphere, mantle

d. mantle, aesthenosphere, upper mantle


41. Which of the following is matched correctly?

a. granite - metamorphic

b. basalt - sedimentary

c. magma - lava

d. sandstone - igneous


42. A rock transformed from any other rock through profound physical and/or chemical processes is referred to as

a. sedimentary

b. metamorphic

c. igneous

d. ancient


43. The history of life on Earth is chronicled in which type of rock?

a. igneous

b. metamorphic

c. sedimentary


44. If you were driving down the highway and saw mountains composed of layered strata, you could be confident that you were looking at

a. sedimentary rocks

b. extrusive igneous rock

c. a shield volcano

d. batholiths or laccoliths


45. Limestone is an example of which type of rock-forming process?

a. sedimentary

b. metamorphic

c. igneous


46. Coal is a fossil fuel formed from

a. dead marine organisms

b. plants

c. metamorphosed mafic minerals

d. blue-green algae


47. Which of the following are located along the midocean ridges?

a. volcanoes

b. outcrops of granite

c. old oceanic sediments

d. evaporite deposits


48. Several large, linear lakes are forming in East Africa. This is evidence of what process?

a. rifting

b. subduction

c. compression

d. isostatic uplift


49. Which of the following is true of divergent plate boundaries?

a. rifting occurs there

b. tensional forces exist there

c. new ocean crust can be created there

d. all of the above

e. none of the above


50. Alfred Wegner's theory of continental drift was immediately accepted by the scientific

community when it was proposed.

a. True

b. False


51. Earthquake and volcanic occurrences do not correlate well with crustal plate boundaries.

a. True

b. False


52. Which of the following is endogenic in nature?

a. weathering

b. stream deposition

c. volcanism

d. glacial erosion


Questions from Chapter 10


53. The uplift of mountains is caused by

a. endogenic processes

b. aggradation

c. denudation

d. exogenic forces


54. The disintegration and dissolving of surface and subsurface rock is called

a. erosion

b. mass wasting

c. landmass denudation

d. weathering


55. In the Northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, slopes that face _________ have more trees on them because _________.

a. south; they receive more direct sunshine for photosynthesis

b. south; they receive more rainfall

c. north; they are more moist

d. north; they receive more direct sunshine


56. Chemical weathering is greatest under conditions of

a. higher mean annual rainfall and temperatures

b. lower mean annual rainfall and temperatures

c. temperatures below freezing

d. rainfall of less than 25 cm (10 in) per year


57. The rate at which rocks weather depends upon

a. the climate of an area

b. the type of rock

c. the amount of vegetation in an area

d. all of the above

e. a and b only


58. Other than the rock itself, the most important chemical substance needed for the majority of weathering processes is

a. oxygen

b. nitrogen

c. water

d. carbon dioxide


59. Which of the following is not a type of physical weathering process?

a. exfoliation

b. hydrolysis

c. salt crystal growth

d. frost wedging


60. The fact that water expands as much as 9% of its volume as it freezes is the basis of

a. chemical weathering processes

b. pressure-release jointing

c. crystallization

d. frost wedging