Jaltomata angasmarcae S. Leiva & Mione
J. anteropilosa S. Leiva & Mione

Peru 
revised 22 Dec 2015
Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Arnaldoa 21(1):
25 - 40, 2014
.
Link to the Jaltomata of Ancash and La Libertad, Peru
   
Figure 1. In this flower of J. angasmarcae two anthers have dehisced and three are undehisced. The ripe berry is orange; arrows point to calyx lobes. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 781.
Figure 2. Side view of flower of J. angasmarcae. Note that the tubular part of the flower increases in diameter from proximal to distal; arrow points to stigma. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 780.
 
 Figure 3. Back of flower of J. angasmarcae.
Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 780
Figure 4. White bar across top of photo is a 15 cm-long ruler resting on the plant
Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 780
 
 Fiugre 5. Ripe fruit on left, and leaf of J. angasmarcae.
Photo by Segundo Leiva G. in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 780
Figure 6. Flower of J. angasmarcae having dehisced anthers. Filaments angle away from style from proximial to distal, creating a spatial separation of the anthers and stigma. Photo by T. Mione in Ancash, Mione et al. 780.
 
 Figure 7. Older stem of J. angasmarcae. Unripe (green) fruit with calyx in upper left
Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 781
Figure 8. Habitat of J. angasmarcae is full sun, roadside. A white ruler (15 cm long) was placed horizontally in plant and can be seen in this photo. Many orange fruits had fallen on the ground below this plant. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 781
 
 Figure 9. In this flower of J. angasmarcae two anthers have dehisced, and three remain undehisced. Note that filaments are villous along lower half, the hairs unpigmented. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 780
Figure 10. Fruits of J. angasmarcae are orange when ripe
photo by T Mione in Department Ancash, Mione et al. 781.

 

Table 1. Descriptions of Jaltomata angasmarcae and J. anteropilosa, considered conspecific by T. Mione. The color red is used to highlight differences between the populations.

Character Description of J. angasmarcae

narrow sense, as circumscribed by Segundo Leiva G.
Figures on this page that show J. angasmarcae   Description of J. anteropilosa

considered a distinct species by Segundo Leiva G.
Figures on this page that show J. anteropilosa
Habit & Height
Woody shrub to about 80 cm high, growing in full sun or very little shade Figs. 1 - 14,
26 - 31, 36
  Woody shrub to about 80 cm high, growing in full sun or very little shade Figs. 15 - 25, 32 - 35
Branches, young

somewhat angular (4-5 sided) when you roll young branch between fingers

pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped, mostly finger hairs but a few have multiple termini

    angular (4-5 sided), mostly green but purple where exposed to sun, the hairs non-gland-tipped, finger hairs  
older
Terete in cross section, to about 1 cm in diameter     Terete in cross section, surrounded by a dense
coverage of lenticels,
glabrous, with longitudinal cracks, to 7 mm in diameter at the base
 
Leaves, size
The blade to 5.9 cm long X 3.5 cm at widest     The basal leaves alternate, the distal leaves at times geminate. The blade to 4.8 cm long X 3.5 cm at widest  
blade shape including margin ovate, asymmetrical at base     ovate, the apex acute  
blade texture membranous     membranous to somewhat coriaceous  
hairs pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped mostly finger hairs but a few have multiple termini     younger leaves pubescent with short, erect finger hairs (not gland-tipped)

 

petiole to 18 mm long, pubescent     to 15 mm long, usually shorter, pubescent like the leaves  
Inflorescence, flowers per inflorescence
4 - 8 (Mione et al. 827),
3 - 5 in protologue
    8 - 13 flowers per inflorescence  
peduncle
pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped, mostly of the finger type but a few have multiple termini (Mione et al. 781)     4 - 8 mm  
pedicel
pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped, mostly of the finger type but a few have multiple termini (Mione et al. 781)        
Calyx when flowering, color & size
         
shape / position during anthesis          
hairs pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped, mostly of the finger type but a few have multiple termini (Mione et al. 781); externally densely pubescent with dendritic hairs (Mione et al. 827)        
at fruit maturity green, hiding about 1/3 of fruit     hiding about 1/4 of the berry in side-view, and shaped like a shallow bowl after fruit separates from calyx; sepal length 7 mm measured on back of calyx, the calyx 15 to 16.5 mm diameter.  
Corolla color
white Fig 1, 2, 6, 9   white Fig 16
green petal spots yes, 10, making throat green     yes Fig 17
purple ring yes, at the base of the limb where the limb meets the tube / throat Fig 6   yes, at the base of the limb where the limb meets the tube / throat;, presence absence variation in one population Fig 16
shape and size
short-tubular with a rotate limb, the tube increasing in diameter from proximal to distal Fig 2   short-tubular with a rotate limb, the tube increasing in diameter from proximal to distal Fig 16
lobes / lobules

5 lobes and 5 lobules alternating (Mione et al. 780, 781)

Mione's photos of the type collection (Fig. 11, 12, 27, 28, 30) show 5 lobes, not 10, but S. Leiva G.'s illustration of the type collection clearly shows 5 lobes and 5 lobules alternating

Fig 2, 3, 9 and cultivated plants of 649 not shown, but not always evident in any one view as one can see in Fig 1   5 lobes and 5 lobules alternating Fig 16
hairs
the margin ciliate Fig 1, 3, 11   the margin ciliate Fig 16
no     no  
Corona
no     no  
Stamen length including anther
stamens angle away from style Fig 9   7 mm Fig. 17
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla is tubular or campanulate)       4 mm

estimated from Fig. 18
Fig. 18
position of stamens: a) before anthers dehisce, b) after anthers dehisce         Fig. 19
base expanded laterally? yes        
filaments Villous along about 50 % of the length; purple proximally but the filament hairs unpigmented (Mione et al. 781)     Villous along about 60% of the length; purple proximally on some plants and purple from base nearly to the top on other plants in same population. Fig. 17
anther hairs glabrous (Mione et al. 827)     pubescent on inner face, the hairs whitish  
anther color Purple (Mione et al. 780);
pale-yellow (Mione et al. 781)
Fig. 9, 1   Purple Figs. 19, 20, 23, 33, 34
anther size          
anther mucronate/mucronulate no     no 23
insertion of filament into anther       base of ventral face  
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?       no 16, 17, 19, 23
pollen quantity per flower      
no data
 
pollen grain size      
no data
 
Gynoecium, stigma

glabrous except for microscopistigma papillae.

0.57 mm perpendicular to length*, figures 2 & 6; at height of dehisced anthers on field-studied flowers (780, 781) and exserted 4 mm beyond anthers on cultivated plants of 649.

       
Style
5.2 to 6.5 mm* long.
11.7 mm (on cultivated plants of 649)
       
Ovary & Ovarian Disk disk is about 50% of the total ovary height        
Nectar
transparent        
Herkogamy yes Fig. 6   yes Fig. 20 center flower
Protogyny yes Fig. 27   yes Fig. 20 upper right flower
Fruit color (at maturity) and size

orange,

7 X 9 mm (fresh not pressed, 781)

8 X 10 mm (fresh not pressed, 649)

9 X 10 mm (fresh not pressed, Mione et al. 827)

1, 10, 26   orange, 7 X 10 mm, 9 X 12.5 mm both fresh not pressed, the first measure being from pedicel attachment to opposite pole 16, 20, 33, 34
Seeds per fruit

91 per fruit from a fruit 8 X 10 mm (781),

50 per fruit from one fruit of size 7 X 9 mm (781); 54 and 71 seeds per fruit (649)

   

76 - 153

93, 113, 153 counts by T. M. and a count of 76 by S. L. G.

 
Seed Size
         

 

Character Description of J. angasmarcae Description of J. anteropilosa collected in Corongo
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Flowers Closing For The Night?
no data
no data
Self-Compatible?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
no data
no data
Pollen quantity per flower    
Ovules per ovary
78
(Mione et al. 780, 39 ovules in one locule X 2 locules, count by T. Mione, flower from wild plant collected in Peru)
 
Ratio of pollen to ovules
   
Chromosome number
no data
no data

 

Diagnosis
Shrub; leaf blades to 6.4 cm long; inflorescence 3 – 5 flowered; corolla whitish, tubular-rotate with 10 green maculae in throat and a purple ring where the tube meets the limb; stamens exserted, the filaments villous along 60% of their length; fruits orange

 

 

Geographic and Altitudinal Distribution of Jaltomata angasmarcae:

Peru, Department
Province
Locality elevation habitat date collector regarded by Segundo Leiva G. as
La Libertad
Santiago de Chuco
Angasmarca
S 08 08.044
W 78 03.012
about 2,880
roadside
25 Mar 2013

TYPE COLLECTION of J. angasmarcae
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5420
Holotype: HAO

J. angasmarcae
La Libertad
Santiago de Chuco
Angasmarca
S 08 08.044
W 78 03.012
about 2,880
roadside
25 Mar 2013
collected at same place and at same time as type collection:
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 827


J. angasmarcae
La Libertad
Santiago de Chuco
Angasmarca
2,900 m
in loose thicket mixed with grasses March 1916 Weberbauer 7197, type specimen of Hebecladus weberbaueri Bitter (US). J. angasmarcae
             
Ancash
Pallasca
Rio Tablachaca
08 16' 44.1, 78 02' 08.7
2,667 m
roadside 18 May 2008 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 780
Leiva, Mione & Yacher 4425
(HAO)
J. angasmarcae
Ancash
Pallasca
Rio Tablachaca
08 12' 35.3, 77 56' 50.4
2,453 m
roadside, full sun 18 May 2008 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 781
Leiva, Mione & Yacher 4427
(HAO)
J. angasmarcae
Ancash
Corongo
town of Corongo, 8 34' 24.3" S, 77 53' 38.2" W
3,173 m
tall rock wall in town 18 May 2015 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 859
J. anteropilosa
Ancash
Corongo
town of Corongo, 8 34' 24.3" S, 77 53' 38.2" W
3,173 m
graveyard, open sun 18 May 2015 TYPE COLLECTION of J. anteropilosa
Mione, Leiva & Yacher 860

Leiva, Mione & Yacher 5885
(HAO)
J. anteropilosa


The following specimen (in the table, not the photo) differs from those listed immediately above by having a conspicuously longer style (the style about twice as long
as the stamens), a larger calyx at fruit maturity that hides the fruit in side view, and a greater number of flowers per inflorescence

Peru, Department
Province
Locality elevation habitat date collector
La Libertad
Santiago de Chuco
Angasmarca
2,750 m
  13 June 1999 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 649
Leiva, Mione & Yacher 2342
(HAO)

 

Figure 11. Flower of Jaltomata angasmarcae. Peru, Department La Libertad. Units out of focus in lower left are mm. Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione.
Figure 12, above. Side view of flower of Jaltomata angasmarcae. The back of the calyx (green), the corolla tube, and an anther (purple) are visible. Units (out of focus) along top are mm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad).
Figure 13, above. Older stems of J. angasmarcae. Numbered units are cm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad
Figure 14, above. Illustration of J. angasmarcae by Segundo Leiva G., drawn from Leiva G. et al. 5420, the type collection

 

Figure 15, above. Segundo Leiva G. is reaching out to a Jaltomata plant Mione et al. 859. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru.
Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 16, above. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 17, above. Flower. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru.
Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 18, above. Mione et al. 860. Smallest units are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru.
Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 19, above. Note that anthers of a flower do not dehisce simultaneously. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru.
Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 20, above. Mione et al. 860. Smallest units at right are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 21, above. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 22, above. Mione et al. 860. Units along left are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 23, above. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 24, above. Mione et al. 860. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 25, above. Corongo, Peru. Numbered units are cm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae. Mione et al. 860.

 

 

Figure 26, above. Fruits, mostly unripe, of Jaltomata angasmarcae. Smallest units along bottom are mm, numbered units are cm. Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad.
Figure 27, above. Flower in pistillate phase (all anthers undehisced), Jaltomata angasmarcae. Units vertically on left are mm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad.
Figure 28, above. Flower of Jaltomata angasmarcae transitioning from pistillate phase to hermaphroditic phase. Note four anthers undehisced, one anther dehisced, units along bottom are mm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad.
Figure 29, above. Jaltomata angasmarcae (the ruler is 30.5 cm long, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad; the date printed on this photo is off by one year... the collection was made on 25 Mar 2013)
Figure 30, above. Flower of Jaltomata angasmarcae (units horizontally along top are mm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad).
Figure 31, above. Jaltomata angasmarcae (along the bottom the three leaves on the left show their upper / adaxial face while the leaf on the right is showing its lower / abaxial face; smallest units along bottom are mm, numbered units are cm, Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad).

 

The following four photos are from Corongo, Department Ancash, northern Peru.

Figure 32, above. Corongo, Peru. Grave marker and Jaltomata plant together. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Mione et al. 860.
Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 33, above. Mione et al. 860. Units along right are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population are a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae.
Figure 34, above. Corongo, Peru. Units along bottom are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo. Segundo Leiva G. maintains that the Corongo population is a distinct species, J. anteropilosa but T. Mione identifies this population as J. angasmarcae. Mione et al. 860.
Figure 35, above. View of the town of Corongo from the graveyard where we collected Mione et al. 860 growing abundantly.
Segundo Leiva G. discovered this population years earlier. Photo by T. Mione in Department Ancash, province Corongo, Peru.
Figure 36, above. Illustration of J. anteropilosa by Segundo Leiva G. According to the protologue this was drawn from Leiva G. et al. 5885, the type collection, but this statement can't be accurate. Leiva G. et al. 5885 was collected in May of 2015 and Segundo Leiva G. generously provided a copy of this exact illustration to T. M. years before. Mione's understanding is that this illustration was made from the collection made when S. L. G. first encountered the Corongo population years earlier than the type collection.

 

Figure 37. Segundo Leiva G. collecting Jaltomata angasmarcae. Mione et al. 827, photo by Thomas Mione in Department La Libertad.