Jaltomata bicolor (Ruiz López & Pavón) Mione

Peru
revised 20 Nov 2017  
Link to Jaltomata homepage
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Brittonia 45(2)
138-145. 1993
.
Link to the Jaltomata of Lima, Peru

Link to the Jaltomata of southern Peru
Link to list of Jaltomata species having edible fruits, including this one
Link to local names including of this species

Figure 1. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima. The flower on the left opened recently, probably within the last few hours; we can infer this because the stamens have not yet elongated enough for us to see them. Anthers of flower on the right are undehisced. Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 2. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

above, Figure 3. A ripe fruit of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima. Units are mm. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 880. Photo by T. Mione

below, Figure 4. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, S. Leiva G. et al. without collection number. Photo by Segundo Leiva G.

above, Figure 5. woody stem of Jaltomata bicolor, units at right are mm, Photo by T. Mione, T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 880.

 

Figure 6. Jaltomata bicolor. Anthers undehsiced in flower on left, dehisced in flower at right (Peru, Dept. Lima, prov. Lima, San Mateo, photo by S. Leiva G., Leiva 2856)

Figure 7. Jaltomata aijana. Anthers undehisced. Photo by Thomas Mione in Peru, department Ancash, Mione, Leiva & Yacher 728


Looking at figures 6 and 7 one may ask, why, in the past, were these considered the same species? We now understand that the collections from department Lima (Figure 6) are J. bicolor.  And the collections from department Ancash (Figure 7) are J. aijana.  Both have long-tubular corollas (“long” in comparison to the many Jaltomata species with short-tubular corollas), are shrubs of high elevations (for elevations, see tables of collections on this page and the J. aijana page), both lack radial corolla thickenings, both have long stamens (over 2.5 cm long), both have dark anthers (blue or purple or even “black” on collection labels), both have exserted stigmas, both have (-1) 2 to 4 flowers per inflorescence, the corollas of both have inconspicuous lobules alternating with conspicuous lobes, the limb of the corolla of both is more or less planar (not recurved as seen in several other Jaltomata species having tubular corollas) and both flower at the same time of year (see tables of collections).

When the plants are pressed the corolla color fades and the corolla form gets flattened, and then these two species look similar.  In other words, the obvious differences shown in the photos above are for the most part lost during the process of pressing and drying. These two species were regarded as one species because the alpha taxonomy was done, in part, by comparison of pressed, dry specimens.
Fieldwork by Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher has revealed that these are distinct and defendable species.

 

 

above, Figure 8. Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Moquegua. All five anthers dehisced. Mione et al. 795, photo by Victor Quipuscoa S.
above, Figure 9. The two anthers of the longest stamens are presenting pollen while the three anthers of the slightly shorter stamens have not yet dehisced, Jaltomata bicolor.
Mione et al. 795, photo by T. Mione in Peru

Description based on numerous herbarium specimens from throughout the range of the species:

Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Woody shrub to 3 m  
Branches, young
finger and dendritic hairs (sparse to dense), the hairs glandless   
older to 8.2 mm diam (Mione et al. 880)  
Leaves, size
leaves single, paired or verticillate; usually ovate but variable in size, shape and margin.      
shape    
hairs glabrate to sparsely pubescent with finger and dendritic hairs  
petiole to 35 mm  
Inflorescence
2 - 4 flowered  
peduncle    
pedicel    
Calyx at flowering
green and / or purple Figure 1
shape / position when flowering rotate to slightly concave;
the collection I made in department Moquegua has a bowl-shaped calyx as shown in Figure 4.
 
at fruit maturity 31 mm diameter (field observation 726)  
Corolla color
bicolored, proximal 2/3 purple (sometimes pink or yellow-green) and distal 1/3 pale-green or cream 1, 2, 3, 4
shape and size

urceolate-tubular, the tube (not including the limb) 1.6 - 2.5 cm long,
the limb planar (not recurved)

1, 2, 3, 4
lobes / lobules 10 total: the lobes alternate with the inconspicuous lobules.
Lobules
sometimes not evident (Mione et al. 612).
1, 2, 3, 4
hairs vesture of tube externally variable, dense to sparse, finger to dendritic trichomes to 1.1 mm long 1, 2, 3, 4
Stamen length including anther
26 - 36 mm long  
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) 0 - 12 mm 1, 2, 3, 4
radial thickenings
no
612 from Dept Lima was dissected carefully
base expanded laterally? no fresh flowers, from plant grown for study at CCSU, Mione et al. 880, careful dissection while observing thru microscope, Oct 2017
, filaments proximal 25 to 30 % villous
(the collection from Moquegua, Mione et al. 795, villous along proximal 7%)
 
anther color blue or black on herbarium specimens;
purple with a green connective visible on outer face (fresh flowers, grown for study at CCSU, Mione et al. 880)
1, 2
anther size 3.3 long X 2.2 mm wide (fresh flowers, from plant grown outdoors at CCSU 2017, Mione et al. 880)
anther mucronate? yes Figure 22
(fresh flowers, from plant grown for study at CCSU, Mione et al. 880)
insertion of filament into anther directly under the anther
Figure 22
staggered anther dehiscence? yes (field observation 617)  
pollen grain size    
corona? no  
Stigma
darker green than the style, 0.75 mm X 1 mm, capitate  
Style    
Ovary green, 2.5 mm high X 2.9 mm wide, the disk pale-yellow on a hermaphroditic-phase flower and occupying 43% of the height of the ovary plant grown for study at CCSU, Mione et al. 880
Nectar
clear nectar drawn into a microcapillary tube from a pistillate-phase flower, the tube was then placed on a white background and viewed both with unaided eyes and then with a dissecting microscope (plant grown for study at CCSU, Mione et al. 880)
Herkogamy Yes until filaments fully elongate, and then No.  
Protogyny yes field observation on 612 and living/cultivated plants of 880
Fruit color (at maturity) orange observed in Department Lima, Peru
(almost certainly an error: Macbride [1962] berry white or rarely blue)
Figure 3
Fruit Size and Seeds per fruit

8.5 X 18 mm contained 196 seeds
13 X 18 mm contained 216 seeds

Mione et al., 880
Seed Size    
Mione's collection numbers of this species 612, 617, 795, 880  
For other descriptions see
Hooker (1845, Hebecladus biflorus with color plate) and
Macbride (1962, H. bicolor, H. intermedius)
 

 

 

Character, Jaltomata bicolor    
Growability in Connecticut, USA
Bloomed in September when grown outdoors in a pot with automated watering (observations by T. Mione, 2017).
"It requries a good greenhouse and may easily be increased by cuttings and probably seeds." (Hooker, 1845).
 
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
 
Flowers Closing For The Night?
No Observation (on Mione et al. 880) by Mione at 9:00 pm in September of 2017
Self-Compatible?
 
Seed Germination
 
Pollen quantity per flower 188,125 count by Demir Camdzic, Fall 2017
Ovules per ovary
192, Mione et al. 880, n = 1 flower count by Thomas Mione, the value shown at left is double the count from one locule
Ratio of pollen to ovules
980 (188,125 / 192 ovules) Mione et al. 880, n = 1 flower
Chromosome number
no data
 

 

Habitat: Open and shrub-covered hillsides, grazed rocky slopes, moist ravines, crevices in stone walls, along edge of agricultural field where it meets a river.

Table of Collections Showing Geographic Distribution, Altitude, of months of the year in flower and/or fruit:

Department

Province

Locality

elev-
ation
m

habitat
date collector (herbarium)
             
Lima Canta Racsa, 23.7 km NW from the main Lima to Canta road on the road to Huamantanga, 1.7 km SE of town square of Huamantanga, 76.7 W, 11.5 S
3,320
growing among stones and grasses 9 Apr. 1999 D. M. Spooner et al. 7374a (herbarium of T. Mione)
Lima Canta Lachaqui
3,500
ladera con abundante vegetación 1 May 1972 G. Vilcapoma 16 (G)
Lima Canta Lachaqui
3,500-3,600
ladera con arbustos perennes 25 Dec 1993 G. Vilcapoma 2815
Lima Canta ca. 1.5 km NE of Canta
3,000
overgrazed hillsides and ravines 1 Feb 1983 M. Dillon et al. 3191 (BH)
Lima Canta 103.5 ruta Canta - Huaros
3,760
borde de carretera 14 Jan 1998 S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 2120 (F)
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 612
Lima Canta hills about 1 kilometer above Huaros
3,700
growing in crevices in stone walls 3 Mar 1976 S. G. Saunders 1383 (K)
Lima Huarochirí infienillo, entre San Mateo y Casapalca
3,200 - 3,300
monte pluvifolio 13 Feb 1949 R. Ferreyra 5704 (US)
Lima Huarochirí Chicla, Bella Vista
3,800
gravelly roadside 5 June 1940 E. Asplund 11449 (US)
Lima Huarochirí Chosica, Santa Eulalia-Marcapomacocha road, 117 km from Lima
3,600
shrubland in valley bottom 8 Mar 1984 D. N. Smith et al. 6268 (NY)
Lima Huarochirí San Mateo, 200 yds up valley of Río Atacra, from junction with Río Rimac, km 110 Central Hwy
3,476
shrub covered hillside 12.4.1963 S. G. E. Saunders 821 (K)
Lima Huarochirí km 104-106, ca.Chicla (Rio Rimac)
3440
entre Popylepis sp., Ambrosia peruviana 16 Jan 1998 S. Leiva G, T. Mione & L. Yacher 2123 (F)
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 617
Lima Huarochirí between km 104-104
3619
  25 May 2016 T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 880
S. Leiva G, T. Mione & L. Yacher 6080
Lima Huarochirí Vicinity of San Damian
2,100-3,000
no data
Feb 1913 A. Hrdlicka s.n. (US)
Lima Huarochirí Vicinity of San Damian
2,400-3,000
no data
Jan-Feb 1913 A. Hrdlicka s.n. (US)
Lima
no data
Vertiente Occidental, Bosque de Sacasanchi
2,950
no data
20 Apr 1980 Valencia 776 (NY)
Lima Huarochirí Río Blanco, entre San Mateo i Casapalca
3,500 - 3,550
pedregoso, falda de cerro 25 Mar 1950 R. Ferreyra 6991 (US)
Lima
no data
Río Blanco
3,000-3,500
open hillside 15-17 Apr 1929 E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 21558 (F NY)
Lima
no data
Río Blanco
3,000-3,500
open hillside 15-17 Apr 1929 E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 21751 (NY, US)
Lima
no data
Río Blanco
3,500-3,600
grassland with shrubs 17 May 1959
L. Diers 953 (US)
Lima
no data
Mione can't read handwriting
3,170
no data no data Soukup 5701 (WIS)
Lima
Yauyos
Laraos, 12 15 S, 75 32 W
3,300
no data 4 Feb 1989 H. Beltran 37
Huancavelica Castrovirreina near Córdova
3,050-3,300
along rock wall at side of stream in shade of shrubs 27-28 March 1942 R. D. Metcalf 30270 (US)
     
     
Moquegua Mariscal Nieto Saylapa, near Carumas
3,300
on stone walls of fields 3 Mar 1925 Weberbaruer 7344 (US)
Moquegua Mariscal Nieto Saylapa, near Carumas, 16 49' 10.6", 70 40' 18.8" (Figure 7)
3,356
stone walls of agricultural fields 6 Jan 2010 Mione et al. 795 (HUSA), Leiva G. et al. 4652 (HAO)
Department

Province

Locality

elev-
ation
m

habitat
date collector (herbarium)


above, Figure 10. Flowers and unripe fruit of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

below, Figure 11. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

above, Figure 12. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number. All anthers dehisced.

below, Figure 13. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number. The flower on the right openned recently, probably within the last few hours; we can infer this because the stamens have not yet elongated enough for us to see them.

above, Figure 14.  View at collection locality in Peru, Department Lima, highway from Lima toward La Oroya, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 880. Photo by T. Mione.

 

Figure 15, above. Calyx hiding unripe fruits
(Mione et al. 795, photo by Victor Quipuscoa S.)
Figure 16, above. Unripe fruits with calyx on top
(Mione et al. 795, photo by Victor Quipuscoa S.)
Figure 17. Collections Mione et al. 795 (J. bicolor) and 796 (J. diversa) were made along the edge of an agricultural field in Peru, department Moguegua, opposite side of valley from photographer, along the road that is more or less horizontal in this view, at roughly the height of the photographer. Thomas Mione towards left walking towards photographer (photo by Victor Quipuscoa S.).

 

above, Figure 18. Flowers of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.
Anthers of flower on right are undehisced.

below, Figure 19. Peduncel, pedicel, calyx, ovary and style of Jaltomata bicolor. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

above, Figure 20. woody stem of Jaltomata bicolor, units at left are mm, Photo by T. Mione, T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 880.

Figure 21

 

 

Jaltomata bicolor

 

 

 

 

This illustration was originally published with a description of Hebecladus biflorus, a synonym of J. bicolor.

Figure 22, below. Anthers of Jaltomata bicolor. Outer face of anther on left, and inner face of anther on right. Filament insertion is directly under the anther, not toward the ventral (inner) face. On right, note pucture in anther, presumably made by an insect. Units along top are mm. Photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 880 grown outdoors in Connecticut, 2017.
 

 

Figure 23.

 

Victor Quipuscoa photographing J. bicolor in Peru, department Moquegua.

 

Mione et al. 795

 

photo by Thomas Mione.

 

Greenhouse plants. No prior removal of nectar. Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations for J. bicolor.

mm of nectar in microcapillary tube microliters of nectar Brix (estimated sugar concentration) Date Temperature Refractometer Age of flower Humidity
89 34.3 28.5 28 October 2017 21.6 C Bellingham & Stanley 45-81 * not recorded
53 20.4 24.5 29 October 2017 not recorded Bellingham & Stanley 45-81 Day 2 not recorded

Each row in the above table is the data for one flower, harvested from a plant grown in a greenhouse Connecticut.
Nectar was not diluted prior to reading refractometer
Nectar appeared clear in the microcapillary tubes.
*Age not recorded; all in the hermaphroditic phase and thus day 1 flowers (pistillate-phase flowers) were not used.
There were no floral visitors seen in the greenhouse. Mione et al. 880
The plant was in a pot and irrigated daily.

 

 

 

Outdoor Plants. Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations for J. bicolor.

mm of nectar in microcapillary tube microliters of nectar dilution with water if any raw refractometer reading if nectar was diluted Brix (estimated sugar concentration) Date Temperature Refractometer Humidity
81 31.2 1 : 1 8.3 16.6 15 September 2017 not recorded Milwaukee MA871 not recorded
20 7.7 5 parts water (38.5 microliters) added 2.8** 16.8 15 September 2017 not recorded Milwaukee MA871 not recorded

Each row in the above table is the data for one flower, harvested from a plant grown in outdoors in Connecticut.
No prior removal of nectar by a person. Nectar appeared clear in the microcapillary tubes.
Flowers were of unknown age but were all in the hermaphroditic phase and thus day 1 flowers (pistillate-phase flowers) were not used.
Bees were seen visting the flowers. Mione et al. 880
The plant was in a pot and was watered daily.
** this value was multiplied by 6 to get the estimated sugar concentration

 

 

Greenhouse Plants. Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations for J. bicolor.

mm of nectar in microcapillary tube microliters of nectar Brix (estimated sugar concentration) Age of flower Date Temperature
C
Refractometer Humidity
55 21.2 24 Day 1 (pistillate) 17 Nov 2017 20.5 B & S not recorded
               
83 31.5 27 Day 2

16 Nov 2017,
with Paul R. Wilson

20.3 B & S not recorded
40 15.4 30.5 Unknown, but flower was hermaphroditic, and so at least we know that it was not a day 1 flower 17 Nov 2017 20.5 B & S not recorded
60 23.1 25.2 Unknown, but flower was hermaphroditic, and so at least we know that it was not a day 1 flower 17 Nov 2017 20.5 B & S not recorded
               

Mione et al. 880. Each row in the above table is the data for one flower, harvested from a plant grown in Connecticut.
No prior removal of nectar. Nectar appeared clear in the microcapillary tubes.
The plant was in a pot and was watered daily.