Jaltomata cajamarca Mione. Novon 6: 280-284. 1996.

Peru
revised 10 Feb 2014  
Link to Jaltomata homepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Novon 6: 280-284. 1996,
Link to Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru
Link to the Jaltomata
of La Libertad, Peru
Link to list of edible species
including this one
Link to local names
including of this species
Figure 1. Upright flower of Jaltomata cajamarca
(Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 757,
photo by T. Mione in Peru).
Figure 2. Flower of Jaltomata cajamarca. Stigma green, obscuring the view of one of the anthers
(Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 757,
photo by T. Mione in Peru, 22 Mar 2007).

Geographic Distribution: J. cajamarca is distributed in northern Peru, mostly Department Cajamarca, but also in northern department La Libertad. Its habitat is roadsides and hillsides with shrubs between 1,500 and about 2,600 meters of elevation. See table of specimens studied (below) for more information.

Figure 3. Jaltomata cajamarca (Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 757, photo by T. Mione in Peru, 22 Mar 2007).

Character Description Figures
Habit & Height
Branching shrub to 1 m  
Branches, young
angular with 4 or 5 projecting longitudinal ridges, bearing both dendritic and finger hairs to 2.2 mm long. Some of the finger hairs are gland-tipped on Mione et al. 793 (field observation).  
Older
brown, approaching terete, glabrate  
Leaves, size often geminate; margin entire, repand, or less commonly bluntly toothed; 4 to 16 cm long, 2 to 5 cm wide; scabrous, especially the younger leaves; hairs adaxially either all dentritic or having interspersed dendritic and finger hairs, 0.07--0.3 mm long, abaxially mostly of the finger type, occasionally gland-tipped, 0.05--0.2 mm long.  
shape ovate, the apex sometimes acuminate  
arrangement and hairs    
petiole    
Inflorescence
to 17 flowers, sometimes branched (with four orders of axes on an isotype  
peduncle
to 19 mm long  
pedicel
4--13 mm long  
Calyx at flowering at anthesis rotate; 6.3--7 mm in diameter; lobe radius 2.7--3 mm; sinus radius 1--2 mm  
at fruit maturity    
Corolla, lobes/lobules
the limb with 5 lobes alternating with 5 smaller lobules; remaining open at night  
shape and size
short tubular with a rotate limb; limb 16--22 mm in diameter; lobe radius 7.5--9 mm; sinus radius 4--5.5 mm; straight tube 3 mm long by 5 mm in diameter  
color
violet to white, with ring of purple at the tube-limb interface, lacking green maculae  
hairs
   
radial corolla thickenings
   
Stamen, length incl anther 3.4--5.9 mm, exserting 1--4 mm beyond corolla tube. Filaments light purple, villous on basal 45--90 %, the finger hairs to 1 mm long.  
filaments    
anther color & length dehisced 0.8--1 mm long  
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen grains Pollen grains 105,000 per flower
 
Gynoecium
   
Stigma
0.33--1.06 mm in diameter, usually noticeably broader than the style  
Style
Style 5.5--11 mm long, exserting a few mm beyond anthers  
Ovary
disk light orange (observed on 793 in the field)  
Ovules per ovary
76  
Nectar clear  
Herkogamy Style exserting a few mm beyond anthers  
Protogyny    
Fruit color (at maturity) and size Fruits 3--5 mm in diameter, orange. Calyx (fruiting) stellate, small: lobe radius 3--5 mm, sinus radius 1.8--2.7 mm (isotype)  
Infructescence to 13 fruited (isotype)  
Seeds per fruit  
no figure
Seed Size  
no figure
Chromosome number
 
no figure
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
no figure
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no figure
Self-Compatible?
no data
no figure
Seed Germination
no figure
Mione numbers 537, 653, 757, 793
Months in flower Flowering and fruiting occurs Feb through June (one specimen was collected in December, see below).
Leaf sample for DNA Yes
Figure 4. Longitudinal view of flower of Jaltomata cajamarca. This flower looks like it is hermaphroditic, unlike those in figure 5 (the same population). Stigmas are smaller on hermaphroditic flowers. To notice this, consider stigma width (diameter) in this photo as a fraction of corolla tube diameter, and then compare stigma width (diameter) as a fraction of corolla tube diameter in the male-sterile flowers in figure 5. Note how the tube of the corolla is slightly broader at the base than at the throat (photo by Mione, Mione et al. 793).
Figure 5. Jaltomata cajamarca. These flowers appear to be male-sterile, having malformed or abortive anthers. Broader (larger) stigmas are present on flowers having abortive anthers! (Peru, Department La Libertad, province Otuzco, near Huaranchal, photo taken in Peru by T. Mione, Mione et al. 793).
Figure 6. Jaltomata cajamarca. This plant was grown from seeds in fruits of a plant of the same population as shown in figures 4 and 5. In contrast with the plants we saw in the field, the stamens of this plant appear to have developed normally, the stigma is much smaller and the style is much longer (photo by T. Mione at CCSU).
Figure 7. One of the largest leaves in population Leiva et al. 4445 = Mione et al 793
(photo by Segundo Leiva G.)
Figure 8. The Huaranchal population was discovered by Segundo Leiva G. in Peru, La Libertad, a few km before Huaranchal, years before we visited it together in May of 2008. Landscape near collection locality Leiva et al. 4445 = Mione et al 793, photo by T. Mione
Figure 9. Hairy stems
(Leiva et al. 4445 = Mione et al 793, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)
Figure 10. Older stems are woody and have lenticels
(photo by Mione, Mione et al. 793)
Figure 11. Fruit (units along bottom are mm, Mione et al. 757).
Figure 12. Note shape variation among leaves: entire and repand-toothed leaves showing, and a toothed leaf is shown in the last photo of this grouping of photos
(Photo by Segundo Leiva G., Leiva et al. 4445 = Mione et al 793)

 

Geographic and Altitudinal Distribution: Peru.

Department
province
Locality elevation m habitat date collector
Data Entry
Listed in protologue as a paratype Listed in Mione 1992 Listed in Leiva 1998
Cajamarca
Contumazá
alrededores de Guzmango
2,500
ladera con arbustos 9 Junio 1990 A. Sagástegui A. 14389 (Holotype: F; Isotype: CONN, Mione's research holdings undeposited).
Nov 09
TYPE
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Cerca del tunel, Carretera Cascas-Contumaza
2,550
en pendiente pedregosa 27 Dec 1970 A. Lopez M. et A. Sagástegui A. 7666 (NY)
Nov 09
Cajamarca Contumazá La Montaña (Guzmango - Contumazá)
2,500
ladera rocosa 18 May 1979 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 9324 (NY)
Nov 09
Cajamarca Cajamarca Arriba de San Juán (km 145)
2,600
borde de carretera, gredoso 16 Jun 1981 A. Lopez M. 8750 (MO NY)
Nov 09
yes
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Yetón-Guzmango
1,800
ladera 29 Apr 1982 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 10315 (HUT MO NY);
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Yetón (San Benito - Guzmango)
2,000
ladera 20 Apr 1984 A. Sagástegui A. 11410 (NY)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Andaloy (San Benito-Yetón)
1,700
ladera 28 Mar 1985 A. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 12546 (F NY)
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Andaloy (San Benito-Yetón)
2,000
borde de carretera 23 Mar 1988 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 13050 (F NY)
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
La Pampa (Guzmango)
2,500
ladera 7 May 1989 A. Sagástegui A. 14121 (F HUT)
Nov 09
yes
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Yetón (San Benito - Guzmango)
2,000
borde de carretera 7 Apr 1990 A. Sagástegui A. 14254 (F)
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Travesía hacia Yetón (San Benito - Guzmango)
1,500
borde de carretera 4 Jun 1994 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 15394
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
El Chorrillo (Cascas - Contumazá)
2,250
ladera 16 Jun 1994 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 15301 (F)
Nov 09
yes
Cajamarca
Contumazá
El Chorrillo (Cascas - Contumazá)
2,000
ladera 16 Feb 1995 A. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 15525 (F)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
El Chorrillo (Cascas - Contumazá)
2,000
ladera 16 Feb 1995 A. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 15526 (F)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Travesía hacia Yetón
2,000
ladera 9 Mar 1995 A. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 15544 (F, US)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
El Chorrillo (Cascas - Contumazá)
2,000
ladera 6 Apr 1996 S. Leiva G. & A. Sagástegui A. 1833 (HAO) = A. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 15873
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
entrada al Bosque Cachil (Cascas-Contumazá)
2,500
borde de carretera, entre hierbas 1 May 1996 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 15891
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
abajo de Guzmango (Chiñac-Santiago)
2,300
borde de chacra entre Solanum tuberosum, Barnadesia 15 Feb 1997 S. Leiva G. et al. 1940 (F)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
ruta Guzmango-Santiago
2,250
borde de camino entre Cordia sp. 23 May 1997 S. Leiva G. et al. 1999 (F)
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Dto. Contumazá, around the Bosque Gachil
2,640 - 2,720
shrubbery at the border of the way 30 Apr 1999 M. Binder et al. 1999/20 (F)
Nov 09
La Libertad
Cas Cas
7 25' 00 " S, 78 47' 40" W
2,280
sunny roadside 16 Jun 1999 T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 653 = S. Leiva, T. Mione & L . Yacher 2353
Nov 09
Cajamarca
Contumazá
Contumaza to CasCas
2,506
roadside
22 Mar 2007
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 757 = S. Leiva, T. Mione & L . Yacher 3657
Nov 09
La Libertad Otuzco parked at 07 42 41.7, 78 26 37.8 and then walked along road (uphill) toward Huaranchal
1918
roadside
22 May 2008
Leiva, Mione & Yacher 4445 =
Mione, Leiva & Yacher 793
July
2008

The fruits are eaten (Sagástegui 10315, 12546, 13050, 14121) and the local name is "canamuela" (Sagástegui 10315, 12546, 13050, 14121).

Reproductive Biology. Two size classes of stigma were evident among plants of J. cajamarca where we collected 793; larger stigmas are shown in figure 5 while smaller stigmas are shown in figures 4 and 6, from the same population as the flower shown in figure 5! As well, remarkable sytle length variation exists in this species, even on the same cultivated plant among flowers open at the same time.
Plants grown in Connecticut from seeds of the type collection (grown as Mione 537) did not set fruit following six manual self-pollinations, nor were fruits set from six interplant pollinations involving three different plants. It is possible that this lack of fruit-set was due to suboptimal growing conditions. Thus, no conclusion has been made about stigma compatibility of
J. cajamarca.

Figure 13. Stem cross section made by hand by Sean Clayton during class with toluidine blue stain. Pith at lower left; cortex and fibers in extreme upper right corner. Note vascuar rays in secondary xylem. Plant grown in Connecticut from field-collected seeds of Mione et al. 793. Photo by T. Mione.
Figure 14. Cork cells. Stem cross section made by hand by Sarah Saunders as part of her independent study (Bio 390) at CCSU. Toluidine blue stain. (Plant grown from field-collected seeds of Mione et al. 793, photo by T. Mione).
Department of La Libertad, Peru. Starting from Otuzco, on the way to and from the interior, we had to cross this bridge (Leon Yacher driving, photo by Mione).
Segundo Leiva G. (left) and Thomas Mione (right).

 

Seeds per fruit Size of the fruit containing the seeds counted comments
79
8 X 10 mm
fruits measured and seeds counted in Peru, Mione et al. 653
41
7 X 9 mm
fruits measured in Peru, seeds counted in Connecticut, Mione et al. 793
58
8 X 10 mm
fruits measured in Peru, seeds counted in Connecticut, Mione et al. 793
60
fruit not measured
fruits measured in Peru, seeds counted in Connecticut, Mione et al. 793
seeds not counted
6.5 X 8 mm
fruits measured in Peru, seeds counted in Connecticut, Mione et al. 793

 

Collection 793 of J. cajamarca from department La Libertad differs from others of J. cajamarca most noticably by having stem hairs that are gland-tipped (see table immediately below). In the following table, characters showing no variation were placed in the lowest rows.
  J. cajamarca J. cajamarca collection 793, Department La Libertad J. mionei
 
Stem hairs
sparsely hairy
the hairs dendritic or simple, not gland-tipped
villous; on a plant grown in Connecituct, USA 2009 hairs gland-tipped and simple on one branch and at the same time on the same plant on another branch slightly larger in diam the hairs dendritic short and non-gland tipped
glabrous
Inflorescence
sometimes branched, mostly not
we saw one branched, the rest were not
not known to be branched
Calyx hairs

short
simple or branched with two termini
non-gland-tipped

long
simple straight
non-gland-tipped and gland-tipped mixed
glabrous or very sparsely pubescent
10 maculae
in a ring in corolla throat
no
no
yes
Filaments hairy along
45 - 90% of length
80% of length
60 - 90% of length
style length
5.3 - 5.76 mm
(collection 757 measured with dissecting scope); 5.5 - 11 mm in protologue
3.55 - 4.3 mm in Peru (This may be biased by the lack of hermaphroditic flowers. Nearly all flowers in the population were male-sterile).
3.5 - 4.8 mm
Department
mostly Cajamarca, Peru
La Libertad, Peru
La Libertad, Peru
Seed Size 1.35 to 1.44 mm long X
1.05 to 1.155 mm perpendicular to length at midlength
X 0.24 to 0.45 mm thick
Corolla
short-tubular, lobes and lobules alternating, total of 10
short-tubular, lobes and lobules alternating, total of 10
short-tublar, lobes and lobules alternating, total of 10
Habit
shrub
shrub
shrub

I thank Segundo Leiva G. for bringing me to populations of this species during our field work together.
to Jaltomata home page
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione,
Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.