Jaltomata dendroidea S. Leiva & Mione
Jaltomata tayabambae S. Leiva & Mione
Peru
 revised Nov 2016

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America
and Segundo Leiva G. (Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo Peru).
Arnaldoa 14(1):
29 - 44. 2007
Arnaldoa 14(2):
219-238. 2007
Link to Jaltomata species of department La Libertad
Link to the Jaltomata species having red nectar, including this one
Link to list of edible Jaltomata species
Link to local names of Jaltomata species

Figure 1.

Face-on view
of flower of
Jaltomata dendroidea

Note red nectar,
radial staminal-corolla thickenings between nectar troughs, and dark green stigma at center

Photo by T. Mione,

Mione, Leiva &
Yacher 719

collected at
the same place
and time as the
type collection

Figure 2.

Side view of
flower of
Jaltomata
dendroidea
.

Note exserted
stamens and style/stigma.

Anthers have
dehisced;
stigma
is darker green
than style.

Photo by Mione,

Mione, Leiva
& Yacher 719

Figure 3

orange berry

Photo by T. Mione, smallest units on ruler are mm

Mione Leiva & Yacher 719.

Figure 4

Calyx, abaxial face,

smallest units are mm

Photo by T. Mione,

Mione, Leiva & Yacher 719

 

Jaltomata dendroidea is common in/among other vegetation ( a humid microhabitat).

J. nigricolor found growing about one minute walk uphill from the type collection of J. dendroidea.

Jaltomata nigricolor is "at home" in the open dry hillside, receiving direct sun all day, where there is approximatly a meter or two separation of the J. nigricolor shrubs apparently due to the dryness. This species, in contrast, had no separation between it and other plants: it was found growing 3 - 4 m high on the other plants.

 

In the following description hairs are unpigmented and non-gland-tipped unless indicated otherwise.

Character Description of J. dendroidea Description of J. tayabambae
Mione collection numbers 719 722
Habit & Height
Woody shrub to 4 m high, growing on / in other vegetation Woody shrub to 3 m high, growing on / in other vegetation
Branches, young
4 - 5 sided, purple adaxially, green abaxially, without lenticels, covered with dendritic hairs. 4 - 5 sided, purple adaxially, green abaxially, without lenticels, hollow, glabrous
older
cylindrical, brown, with lenticels, glabrous, to 2 -3 cm diameter at base cylindrical, brown, hollow, with lenticels, glabrous, to 2.5 -3 cm diameter at base
Leaves, blade texture & size
alternate and geminate, membranous,
to 16 cm long
 
blade shape including margin ovate to ovate-lanceolate  
hairs upper side noticably hairy to unaided eye, the hairs all or or predominantly dendritic  
petiole semicylindrical, green, glabrescent, covered with dendritic hairs, 1.7 - 3 cm long  
Inflorescence
1 - 3 (-4) flowers based on my observations of pressed specimens made at the time and location of the type collection;
2 according to protologue
2
peduncle
4-5 sided, green, glabrescent, covered with unpigmented dendritic hairs, 6 - 8 mm long glabrescent, 9 - 11 mm long
pedicel
5-sided, pale-green proximally, purple distally, covered with dendritic hairs, 15-16 mm long figure 7
Calyx when flowering, color & size
green, 17 - 18 mm diam (Figure 12) green, 20 - 21 mm diam
shape / position during anthesis planar (Figure 12) flat to reflexed (Figure 6)
hairs covered with dendritic hairs on the  
at fruit maturity 23 - 25 mm diameter (Figures 3, 4)  
Corolla color
green (Figure 13) green (interior), green-purple (exterior)
Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
shape and size
campanulate, 10-11 mm long (13 - 14 mm in protologue) X 23 - 30 mm diam (fresh flower) (Figure 13) campanulate, 11 - 13 mm long
X 22 - 23 mm diam
Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
lobes / lobules
the lobes (5) alternating with small/inconspicuous lobules (5), the lobules very broad relative to length (see photos above and below); lacking lobules in protologue's illustration and description 5 lobes and no lobules, or the lobes (5) alternating with small/inconspicuous lobules (5), the lobules when present very broad relative to length
Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
hairs
externally, the veins covered with dendtritic hairs Figures 6, 7
Yes, from stamen's base toward sinus/lobule (Figures 1, 15)
Yes, from stamen's base toward sinus/lobule
(Figures 5, 8)
Corona
no no
Stamen length including anther
stamens of a flower varying in length,
to 13 mm
stamens of a flower varying in length,
to 13.1 mm (Figures 7, 8)
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla is tubular or campanulate) 5 mm 4.5 mm (pressed specimen)
8 mm (pickled specimen, at time and place of type collection)
(Figure 7)
position of stamens: a) before anthers dehisce, b) after anthers dehisce a) connivent; b) nearly connivent: angling away from style only 5 - 10 degrees a) connivent; b) nearly connivent: angling away from style only 5 - 10 degrees (Figures 5, 7, 8)
base expanded laterally? yes yes
filaments whitish, glabrous (at the time and place of the type collection) but flowers of cultivated plants have pubescent filaments (Figure 11) pale-green, with purple hairs at base
anther color yellow yellow (Figure 9)
anther size oblong, 2.5 - 2.8 mm long oblong, 3.5 - 3.8 mm long
anther mucronate/mucronulate no yes
insertion of filament into anther lower ventral face lower ventral face
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen grain size

range 32.5 - 40.25, mean 35.96 um, n = 28 grains in polar view, analine blue in lactophenol, pollen had been stored in 70% ethanol for years
pollen measured by Scott E. Poglitsch, Mione et al. 719

 
Gynoecium, stigma
exserted, green, capitate,
bilobed, 1 - 1.1 mm diameter
exserted, green, capitate,
(Figures 7, 8)
Style
12-12.5 mm long, whitish 14 - 17 mm
Ovary & Ovarian Disk ovary green, glabrous, 2.3-2.4 X 3.2-3.3 mm, the disk yellow-orange occupying 40-50% of the height of the ovary  
Nectar
red (Figures 1, 11) red (Figures 5, 8)
Herkogamy yes (Figure 2) yes
Protogyny yes,some of the open flowers encounted at the time of the type collection have undehisced anthers and some dehisced anthers yes,some of the open flowers encounted at the time of the type collection have undehisced anthers and some dehisced anthers
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange, 14 X 19 - 20 mm (Figure 3)

orange, 11 X 13 mm (Figure10)

Seeds per fruit
217 per fruit from a fruit 14 X 19 - 20 mm.
S. Leiva independently counted (same population) and reported in the protologe 251 - 259 seeds per fruit.
204 per fruit from a fruit 11 X 13 mm
Seed Size
1.5-1.7 X 1.3-1.5
Character Description of Jaltomata dendroidea Description of J. tayabambae

Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA
growable in greenhouse

J. Kostyun, personal communication
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
5 to 6 weeks
J. Kostyun, personal communication
Flowers Closing For The Night?
No J. Kostyun, personal communication, Mione et al. 719
Self-Compatible?
Yes (2 individuals) J. Kostyun, personal communication, Mione et al. 719
Seed Germination
no data no data
Pollen quantity per flower 52,500 n = 1 flower, count by Kenneth C. Plourd 2016
Ovules per ovary
304
count by T. M, 2016
Ratio of pollen to ovules
173 (52,500 grains / 304 ovules)
Chromosome number
no data
no data
Character Jaltomata dendroidea  


J. dendroidea (including J. tayabambae) Geographic Distribution, Peru, Department La Libertad, province Patáz:

location elevation habitat date collector
 
3360 m
in/among other plants 11 June 2005 S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3350 (Holotype: HAO; Isotypes: CORD, F, HAO, HUT, LPB).
parked at Llacuabamba 08 02.071 S, 77 27.542 W, walked up to 08 02.347 S, 77 27.948 W
3360 m
among (on) other plants
11 June 2005

Mione, Leiva & Yacher 719 was collected at the same place and time as the holotype

S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3349 (HAO; Isotypes: CORD, F, HAO, HUT, LPB) was collected at the same place and time as the holotype

08 07.355 S, 77 24.868 W
3523 m
  12 June 2005

Mione, Leiva & Yacher 721

S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3352

08 16.486 S, 77 18.191 W
3202 m
  12 June 2005

Mione, Leiva & Yacher 722

S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3353

 

 

 

Figure 5. Jaltomata, Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae Figure 6. Jaltomata, Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae
Figure 7. Jaltomata. Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae Figure 8. Jaltomata. Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae
Flower.Side.View.Jaltomata
Figure 9. Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae
Figure 10. Mione et al. 722 = Leiva et al. 3353 type collection of J. tayabambae
Figure 11. Flower of cultivated plant. Note red nectar, radial thickenings between nectar troughs, and dark green stigma at center. Photo by Jamie Kostyun, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 719 collected at the same place and time as the type collection.
Figure 12. Back of flower, the calyx green, the corolla light green, cultivated plant, photo by Jamie Kostyun, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 719
Figure 13. Longitudinal view of flower, cultivated plant, photo by Jamie Kostyun, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 719

 

Figure 14. Jaltomata dendroidea. Base of stamen, ventral view (view from ovary). Distance between black vertical lines is approximately one mm, based on out of focus ruler across bottom. Photo by Thomas Mione, after collection 719 had been stored in ethanol for years.

Figure 15

Jaltomata dendroidea

the radial thickening extends from the base of a stamen toward where a lobule would be if a lobule was present (as shown in the top photo of this web page)

Flower was stored in ethanol for years prior to photo.

 

Units across bottom are mm

 

Photo by Thomas mione