Jaltomata dentata (Ruiz & Pav.) Benítez
Peru
revised 17 Nov 2017  

 

Link to Jaltomata homepage

 

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department,
Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, USA

Rev. Fac. Agron. (Maracay), IX(1): 91. 1976.

Scholars Bulletin 2(8): 476-484. 2016.

Link to list of edible Jaltomata species
Link to list of local names of Jaltomata species
Link to the Jaltomata of Lima, Peru
Link to a reported medicinal use

above, Figure 1.  Jaltomata dentata leaves and flowers.  Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

below, Figure 2. Ripe fruits of J. dentata. Units along bottom are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 881

 

 

Character Description Figures on this page Source of information
Habit & Height
Woody at base, herbaceous above, commonly to 50 cm high (to 70 cm Vilcapoma 2167). Variously described as herb, suffrutescent and even as shrub (Ferreyra 5293) by different collectors.

Described as an annual herb (planta herbacea...annua) in protologue but this plant is clearly not an annual given its woody stem
Figure 8  
Branches, young
pubescent, short, finger-like hairs, some branched    
older
woody, to x mm diam Figure 8  
Leaves, size
     
blade shape including margin      
blade texture      
hairs

upper face: pubescent with mostly dendritic hairs, but also a few finger-like hairs (outdoor-grown).

lower face: pubescent with a mixture of dendritc and finger hairs (outdoor-grown)

Hypocotyl, cotyledons and first-foliage leaves of seedlings are pubescent with unpigmented conspicuously gland-tipped finger hairs
(Nov 2016)
 
Mione et al. 881 grown for study 
petiole      
Inflorescence
up to 11 flowers per inflorescence   Mione et al. 881 grown for study at CCSU
peduncle
     
pedicel
     
Calyx at flowering
Green, the lobes darker, 5 mm from lobe tip to lobe tip (flat to ruler), 2.2 mm from pedicel's base to lobe tip (both measurements flat to ruler), densely pubescent with mostly dendritic hairs     Mione et al. 881 grown for study at CCSU
at fruit maturity      
Corolla color
purple, the throat green Figure 1  
green spots yes: five pairs of green spots, also visible from the side and back of flower Figures 1, 3  
purple ring yes if purple corolla is homologous with purple ring of other species    
purple in base of corolla no    
shape and size
crateriform ("rotate-campanulate" Macbride 1962)    
lobes/lobules
10 total, the lobules small and inconspicuous compared to the lobes; in some views the lobules absent Figure 1  
hairs
Hairs not gland-tipped, not droplet tipped. Abaxially densenly pubescent, the hairs mostly finger-like but a few are forked and a few are dendritic; adaxially (inner face) also pubescent, the nectar zone (the green throat) glabrous.     
no   Mione et al. 881 grown for study at CCSU
Stamen length including anther
4 mm    
filaments pubescent on proximal 26% of the length    
anther color yellowish, the connective greenish on outer face    
anther size      
anther mucronate/mucronulate      
anthers of a flower open simultaneously? no Figure 5  
pollen grain size 22 - 26.25 micrometers,
mean 23.8 micrometers
  Mione et al. 618,
15 grains, flowers collected in
Peru (not grown for study)
Stigma
green, 0.6 X 0.45 mm (overhead view, with dissecting microscope)   living flowers of Mione 881
Style
pale-green to off-white, 5.8 to 6.5 mm long   living flowers of Mione 881
Ovary
The ovary 1.9 mm wide X 1.2 mm high;
the disk (orange) occupying 75% of height of the ovary
  living flowers of Mione 881
Nectar
amber in color   to view color, nectar was removed from a flower with a pipette and put on to white nonporous surface (twice, two different months, both amber)
Herkogamy yes    
Protogyny yes   first observation of this by Paul R. Wilson, on a plant grown for study
Fruit color at maturity
orange Figure 2 field observations
Fruit size and seeds per fruit 8.5 X 10 mm contained 64 seeds
8.5 X 11.5 contained 79 seeds
  field-collected fruits, both observations Mione et al. 881
Seed Size
     
Character Description of Jaltomata dentata Figures on this web page  

 

Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations, greenhouse plants watered daily. Paul R. Wilson and T. Mione

mm of nectar in microcapillary tube microliters of nectar dilution with water if any raw refractometer reading if nectar was diluted Brix (estimated sugar concentration) Date Temperature Refractometer Humidity
5 0.93 no no 16 Nov 2017 not recorded B & S not recorded
6 1.12 no no 17.5 Nov 2017 not recorded B & S not recorded

Each row in the above table is the data from one flower. Flowers were of unknown age but were all in the hermaphroditic phase; there was no prior removal of nectar from the flowers.


Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA
Grows well in greenhouse. 4 months from seed germination to flowering: For the first flowers to be produced it took from 13 Nov 2016 when seeds first germinated to 19 March 2017.
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Flowers Closing For The Night?
Yes
Observation (on Mione et al. 881) by Mione at 9:00 pm in September of 2017
Self-Compatible?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
Seeds were stored from 25 May 2016 until 6 September 2016, about 3.5 months. A heat mat was under the seed cups, the seed coat was not removed, and no GA was applied. First germination 13 November 2016, more than two months after seeds were sown. Mione et al. 881
Pollen quantity per flower 38,200 Mione et al. 609, n = 1 flower;
53,500 Mione et al. 618, n = 1 flower
flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study), counts by Emmett P. Varricchio
Ovules per ovary
58 Mione et al. 609, n = 1 flower
60 Mione et al. 618, n = 1 flower
flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study); counts by Thomas Mione
Ratio of pollen to ovules
659 Mione et al. 609, n = 1 flower
892 Mione et al. 618, n = 1 flower
flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
Chromosome number
no data  
Character    

Figure 3, above.  Jaltomata dentata leaves and flowers.  Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 4, below.  View at collection locality in Peru, Department Lima, highway from Lima toward La Oroya, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 881. Photo by T. Mione.

 

 

         Geographic and Altitudinal Distribution: Peru, Department Lima, elevation 2600 to 3600 m, flowering in Dec, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr and Aug.

Department Province Locality
elev-
ation
habitat date collector Data Entry
Lima Canta TYPE: Obrajillo
76 36' 33" W, 11 26' 40" S
2732
no data
early Feb 1788
Ruiz s.n. (lectotype: MA not seen; Isotype: G!); photo of type (B, destroyed) F neg. 2550 G! GH! NY! WIS!  
Feb 2007
Lima Canta Lachaqui
3200-3500
tierra arcillosa
26 Dec 1972
G. Vilcapoma S. 112 (US)
Aug 2010
Lima Canta about 17 km above Canta toward Huaros
3500
roadside bank
3 Mar 1976
S. G. Saunders 1391 (K)
Feb 2007
Lima Canta Lachaqui, camino hacia Arahuay
3500
monte bajo perenne, con veg. herbácea
9 Apr 1993
G. Vilcapoma S. 2167
Feb 2007
Lima Canta cerca a Lachaqui
3350
ladera con monte arbustivo
30 Mar 1991
A. Granda P. 230
Feb 2007
Lima Canta alrededores de la ciudad de Canta
2700-2800
tierras cultivables
9 Apr 1998
G. Vilcapoma S. 4739
Feb 2007
Lima Canta Huaros: arriba de pueblo
3600
ladera con arbustos dispersos
24 Feb 1992
A. Granda & J. Alegría 320
Feb 2007
Lima Canta Ruta Canta - Obrajillo
2730
borde de carretera entre Ambrosia peruviana
14 Jan 1998
S. Leiva G., T. Mione, L. Yacher 2116; T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 609
Feb 2007
Lima Canta San Miguel (SOME PLANTS AT THIS LOCALITY LACK STAMENS)
2665
roadside
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 610 (purple cor) & 611 (white cor)
Feb 2007
Lima Canta Ruta Obrajillo - San Martín
2665
borde de carretera entra Carica candicans
14 Jan 1998
S. Leiva G., T. Mione, L. Yacher 2119; T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 613
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí type of Saracha lobata Bitter. Lima to Oroya road, southwest of Matucana
3000
on stony ground
28 Dec 1901
Weberbauer 206 (Holotype B, destroyed, F neg. 2553)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí type of Saracha sordideviolacea Bitter. Lima to Oroya highway, "uber Matucana"
2600
Fix: get help with German in protologue
26 Mar 1910
Weberbauer 5258 (Holotype B, destroyed, F neg. 2556)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí Matucana
2440
no data
14-18 Mar 1923
J. F. Macbride 2950 (GH NY US)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí between San Mateo & Río Blanco
3300-3400
rocoso, falda moradas
17 Jan 1949
R. Ferreyra 5293 (US)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí Huaquícha arriba de Surco
2900
no data
9 Mar 1974
E. Cerrate 5825A (MO)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí km 101 carretera Lima-La Oroya
3245
borde de carretera
16 Jan 1998
S. Leiva G., T. Mione, L. Yacher 2124; T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 618
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí S 11' 43.909, W 076' 16.088
3475
borde de carretera
25 May 2016
S. Leiva G., T. Mione, L. Yacher 6081; T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 881
July 2016
Lima Huarochirí Bosque Zárate (Gigantón)
2860
see footnote
29 Aug 1977
Valencia 266 (NY)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí Bosque Zárate (Gigantón)
2870
see footnote
4 Mar 1980
Valencia 575 (NY)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí Bosque Zárate (Gigantón)
2860
see footnote
20 Apr 1980
Valencia 886 (NY)
Feb 2007
Lima Huarochirí Bosque Zárate (Gatero)
2860
see footnote
1 May 1981
Valencia 1237 (NY)
Feb 2007
Lima Yauyos ca. 1 km NE of Cacra on the footpath to Hongos: 75.767 W, 12.867 S
2880
along the slope along the side of the path
9 Mar 1999
D. M. Spooner et al. 7302a
Feb 2007
Lima Yauyos ca. 1 km NE of Cacra on the footpath to Hongos: 75.767 W, 12.867 S
2880
sandy & rocky soil, along the slope along the side of the path
9 Mar 1999
D. M. Spooner et al. 7302b
Feb 2007
Footnote: "Forested areas in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes (like Bosque de Zárate) follow a patchy distribution, they are sometimes called dry cloud forests. They are usually present between 2500 to 3200 m, at an altitude where mist is frequent during the wet season, and are more abundant, larger and denser in North Peruvian territory" (Arturo Granda P., personal correspondence 2007).

 

above, Figure 5  Jaltomata dentata leaves and flowers.  In flower at right, note that two anthers have dehisced and three have not, nonsimultaneous anther dehiscence. Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

below, Figure 6. Ripe fruits of J. dentata. Units along bottom are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 881

above, Figure 7. Woody stem of Jaltomata dentata, units at left are mm, Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 881
above, Figure 8. Woody stem of Jaltomata dentata, smallest units are mm, Photo by T. Mione in CCSU greenhouse, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 881

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 9. Very near type locality.

The smallest units are mm on the ruler behind the flowers.

Photo taken prior to digital cameras, hence the mediocre quality, Mione, Leiva G. and Yacher 609.

Synonyms
basionym: Saracha dentata Ruiz & Pav., Fl. Peruv. 2: 43, tab. 171 b. 1797.
Atropa dentata (R. & P.) Spreng. Syst. Veget. 1: 699. 1815.
Bellinia dentata (R. & P.) Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Vegetabil. 4: 687. 1819.
Witheringia dentata (R.&P.) Miers, Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist., second series, 11: 92. 1853. Ill. S. Amer. Pl. 2: App. 56. 1857.

Redescribed:
1) Spreng. Syst. Veget. 1:699
2) G. Don   Gen.Syst.
3) Dunal, DC. Prodr. 13(1): 432. 1852.
4) Macbride

 

According to Macbride (1962) H. Weberbaueri Bitter (F neg. 2532) is a synonym, but his statement is not supported by data. Follow this link and then look for H. weberbaueri Bitter to see my explanation.