Jaltomata diversa (J. F. Macbr.) Mione

Peru

revised 5 Aug 2016  

 

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru

Brittonia 51(1): 31-33. 1999

 

Link to the Jaltomata of southern Peru

 

Figure 1. Jaltomata diversa. The anthers of a flower evidently do not open to present pollen (dehisce) simultaneously: In the flower on the right three anthers are undehisced while two have completely dehisced (T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher, L. Cáceres M. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)

 

Figure 2. T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.

Figure 3. T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.

4. Side view of flower (T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)

5. Woody stem and leaf at left (T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)

6. Jaltomata diversa grows in man-made rock walls between fields
(Laura Cáceres Martínez facing viewer, Segundo Leiva G. nearly hidden,
T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Thomas Mione)

7. Habitat: grows in man-made rock walls betwen fields
(T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Thomas Mione)

8. Branches (smallest units on ruler are mm,
T. Mione et al. 805
, photo by Thomas Mione)

9. Leaves and woody branch (smallest units along top are mm,
T. Mione et al. 805
, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)

10. Inflorescences, branches and leaves
(T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)

11. Fruits, ripe (orange) and unripe (green)
(smallest units on ruler are mm, T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Thomas Mione)

 

Jaltomata diversa (J. F. Macbr.) Mione. Brittonia 51(1): 31-33. 1999. Saracha dentata Ruiz & Pav. var. diversa J. F. Macbr., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13, part V-B, no. 1: 34. 1962. TYPE: PERU. Dept. Arequipa, Prov. Condesuyos, above Salamanca, S 15 30' 06"; W 73 49' 58", 3600 - 3700, March 1914, A. W. Weberbauer 6853 (LECTOTYPE, US!: ISOLECTOTYPES: F, GH!, MOL!, NY!). Treatment of this taxon at the species level was proposed by C. V. Morton in an unpublished manuscript (obtained from W. G. D'Arcy).

Distribution and Ecology: southern Peru (departments are listed below in table of specimens), altitude from about 2600 to 3700 m.  It has been collected in sandy-rocky places.  Flowering December through April; fruiting occurs in February-April.

This species is distinguished from Jaltomata dentata (Ruiz & Pav.) Benítez, of which it was originally treated as a variety, by its lack of peduncles and its shrub habit, reaching 0.5 - 3 m in height.  J. dentata has peduncles 0 - 18 mm long, is woody only at the base, and reaches no more than 25 cm in height.       

Flowers fragrant (Laudeuiau 3808)

Habit & Height

Shrub to 1.5 m (3 m, label of Vargas 19503)

 

Branches, young

terete, green, densely pubescent, the hairs non-gland-tipped and whitish, at least some of the hairs dendritic

 

Older

terete, brown, to 1 cm diameter, not hollow

 

Leaves Size

 

figure 9

Shape

 

figure 9

arrangement and hairs

alternate, often geminate, pubescent with many dendritic hairs on underside and upperside

 

petiole

5, 6, 8 mm long

 

Inflorescence

6, 7

 

Peduncle

there is no peduncle, a defining characteristic of this species

 

Pedicel

green, terete, pubescent with dendritic hairs

 

Calyx at flowering

very nearly planar, densely pubescent with dendritic hairs, the margin ciliate

 

at fruit maturity

planar, stellate, 7 - 8 mm diam

 

Corolla lobes/lobules

5-lobed

figures 1, 3, 4, 12

shape and size

crateriform, 11 mm across

 

color

white with pair of green maculae at base of each lobe

figures 1, 3, 4,12, 14

hairs

outer surface pubescent with unpigmented hairs

 

radial thickenings

no

 

Stamen length

 

 

filaments

very pale green or cream-colored, hairy at base the hairs unpigmented

 

anther length & color

anther cream-colored

 

anthers of a flower dehisce simultaneously?

at least sometimes no

see figure 1

pollen grains

40,000 - 62,188 grains per flower (n = 2 flowers)

Higher count by CCSU student Elisabeth dos Santos, 2011
Lower count by Kenneth C. Plourd 2016

Stigma

capitate

 

Style length

4 mm, gradually increases in diam proximal to distal

figure 1

Disk around ovary

orange, the disk about 60% as high as the ovary

 

Ovules per ovary

35

Ovules counted by T. Mione, Mione et al. 805 

Nectar

transparent

 

Herkogamy

yes, stigma exserted 1 mm beyond anthers (field notes, Mione et al. 805)

 

Protogyny

 

 

Fruit color (at maturity) and size

orange (figure 11), 6.5 X6.5 mm

 

Infructescence

 

figure 11

Seeds per fruit

24 (n = 1, Mione et al. 805)

 

Seed Size

 

 

Chromosome number

no data

 

Growability in Connecticut, USA

no data

 

How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?

no data

 

Self-Compatible?

no data

 

Seed Germination

no data

 

Ratio of Pollen to ovules

1,143 (n = 1 flower having 40,000 grains / 35 ovules)

 

 

Specimens examined: Peru. Specimens organized roughly north to south except for type specimen in first row.

Department

province

locality

altitude

habitat

date

collectors

herbaria

Data Entry

Arequipa

Condesuyos

LOCALITY: above Salamanca

3600 - 3700 m

March 1914

W. Weberbauer 6853

see above

TYPE

Ayacucho

Huanta

road from Huanta to Huallay, S 12 49', W 74 16'

3550

Steep rocky slope with sparse vegetation, in loose scree and soil, in full sun

18 Feb 2000

M. & K. Weigend 2000/362

HUSA

Feb 2010

Ayacucho

Cangallo

Ocros

2900

open sunny sandy soil

2 Mar 1939

Stork & Horton 10799

G, K

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

Lucanas

trail from Quebrada de Chulla-bora to main road

3100

dry hillside, partial shade, growing among rocks of fence

3 Apr 1942

R. D. Metcalf 30317

G, US

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

Lucanas

alrededores de Puquio

3350

arcillosa-pedregoso

22 Apr 1950

Ferreyra 7181

US, USM

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

Lucanas

on rd. 8 km NW of Puquio, above San Juan

3250

high rocky steep arid shrubby grazed slopes

14 Dec 1962

H & C Iltis & D & V Ugent 457a

WIS

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

Lucanas

1 Km NW of Puquio

3300

weeds in hegerow, edge of Vicia, Oxalis, Solanum field

14 Dec 1962

H & C Iltis & D & V Ugent 484

WIS

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

Lucanas

1 km NW of Puquio

3300

weeds in rocky hedgerows

14 Dec 1962

Iltis & Ugent 481a

WIS

Aug 2007

Ayacucho

 

between La Quinua and another place I can't read

no data

no data

20 Feb 1968

Soukup 5631 (US)

US

Dec 2010

Apurímac

Grau

Cotabambas (alrededores)

3500

laderas abiertas

Mar 1946

C. Vargas C. 5668

CUZ

Mar 2010

Apurímac

Andahuaylas

quebrada 2 km north of Andahuaylas

3050

clay among boulders

23 Feb 1939

H. E. Stork & O. B. Horton 10716

F, G, GH

Aug 2007

Arequipa

Arequipa, distrito de Pocsi

pueblo Piaca
S 16 30' 10.8"
W 71 21' 20.9"

3183

in man-made rock walls between agricultural fields

19 Jan 2010

T. Mione et al. 805; S. Leiva et al. 4669

HAO, HUSA

Feb 2010

Arequipa

Arequipa

Petroglifos de Sogay
S 16 34 0.7, W 71 25 51.2

2625

ladera arbustiva

11 Feb 2006

V. Quipuscoa et al. 3350

HUSA, herbarium of T. Mione

Jan 2010

Arequipa

Arequipa

lower slopes of Misti

2897

semi-shade

Feb 1943

Laudeuiau (spelling?) 3808

K

Aug 2007

Arequipa

Arequipa

alrededores Arequipa

2400

pedregales; borde camino

31 Mar 1949

C. Vargas C. 8101

CUZ

Mar 2010

Arequipa

Condesuyos

Cabracancha

3200

matorral, laderas

23 Apr 1967

C. Vargas C. 19429

CUZ

Mar 2010

Arequipa

La Unión

Cotawasi

3400

laderas matorral

25 Apr 1967

C. Vargas C. 19503

CUZ

Mar 2010

Arequipa

Condesuyos

above Chuquibamba

3202

among stones and under rocks

31 Dec 1937

D. Stafford 1159

K

Aug 2007

Cuzco

 

 

2900 m

entre rocas

 

C. Vargas C. 2426

CUZ

Mar 2010

Cuzco

Paruro

Huanoquite (hand-written - spelling uncertain)

3400

open rocky slopes

1942

Vargas 2272

F

Aug 2007

Moquegua

Mariscal Nieto

Saylapa, near Carumas, 16 49' 10.6", 70 40' 18.8"

3,356

stone walls of agricultural fields

6 Jan 2010

Mione et al. 796; Leiva G. et al. 4653

HAO, HUSA

Jan 2010

Department

province

locality

altitude

habitat

date

collectors

herbaria

Data Entry

.

12. Jaltomata diversa (T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher, L. Cáceres M. et al. 805, photo by Thomas Mione)

 

13. Jaltomata diversa. Absence of peduncle is evident in this photo.
H. E. Stork & O. B. Horton 10799
. Smallest units on ruler are mm.

 

14. Flower of Jaltomata diversa

An attempt was made to

remove in this photo fingers holding flower

(T. Mione et al. 805,

photo by Segundo Leiva G., )

 

15. Thomas Mione photographing Jaltomata diversa (January 2010, T. Mione et al. 805, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)