Floral Phenology of Jaltomata grandiflora

revised 2013  
Link to Jaltomata homepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Link to Jaltomata of Mexico and Central America
Nectar Clear (translucent), collects where corolla and androecium meet, both during pistillate and hermaphroditic phases. I measured 0.72 to 1.32 microliters of nectar in pistillate phase flowers in 2009 on cultivated plants in Connecticut (volumes were determined by measuring the nectar in microcapillary tubes, given 10 microliters fill tube to 26.5 mm long)
Herkogamy Yes, stamens and stigma are a few mm apart during hermaphroditic phase
Protogyny Yes, anthers remain closed the first day the flower is open
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit? Flower open on 2 August became a ripe fruit 9 September 2009
(flower was tagged on 2 Aug)
Self-Compatible? Yes, a single plant grown in 2009 set fruit containing viable-looking seeds

Floral Phenology Shown In Photos:

Day 1.

Pistillate Phase. Anthers undehisced and filaments are so short that we can't see them in this photo. Nectar is produced.
Day 2.

Flower hermaphroditic: anthers have dehisced and
filaments have elongated.
Day 2, 6 pm.

Abscission of corolla (with stamens attached to corolla inside of it). Calyx / gynoecium now showing.
Day 2, 6:30 pm.

Self-pollination is apparently caused by the detaching of the corolla with the anthers inside of the corolla touching stigma as corolla drops.

Now corolla has completely abscised, and pollen can be seen on right edge of stigma.

Floral Phenology:
Observations on Two Tagged Flowers, Potted Plant.
no bagging to exclude insect visitors,
no visiting insects were seen during any of these observations
1  23 July
9 am, 3 pm
pistillate Anthers undehsiced and filaments very short, cor open. Flower color similar to leaves (unaided eye). Cor was closed yesterday. See first photo in sequence immediately above.
  4 pm Cloudy, windy, cool conditions seem to have triggered the closure of the cor. Anthers remain undehisced.
2 24 July 7:40 am hermaphroditic One to two of the five anthers dehisced, filaments have already elongated but not fully
  8:20 am Cor has become planar/rotate. 4/5 anthers have dehisced on flower (a) and 2/5 on (b).
  8:50 am 5/5 anthers have dehisced on flower (a), 4/5 on flower (b)
  2 pm Cor planar/rotate. All anthers dehisced. Nectar evident and photographed (top right photo of this web page).
  4 pm Cor infundibular because closing
  6 pm flowers no longer functional Cor/androecium unit abscised (3rd photo in sequence above)
3 25 July all morning and afternoon flowers no longer functional Pollen can be seen on the stigma of flower (a); cor of flower (b) is closed, still attached
  Summary Corolla was open for two days. The flowers were pistillate the first day (filaments short, anthers closed). The second day flowers became hermaphroditic, involving rapid filament elongation in the morning while anthers dehisced. Delayed self-pollination: Self-pollination was apparently caused by the abscision of the corolla: as the corolla drops the anthers inside of the corolla touch the stigma.

Many other flowers were carefully observed during 2009, and the data (on paper, filed by grandiflora) could be entered here

Four other flowers were studied (previous years) and all showed the same pattern of a pistillate day followed by a hermaphroditic day.