Jaltomata herrerae (C. V. Morton) Mione
Peru and Bolivia
revised 20 Sep 2017
Link to Jaltomata homepage
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Revista Univ. (Cuzco) 33(87): 96. 1944-1945.
Link to the Jaltomata of southern Peru
Link to chromosome count
Link to edible Jaltomata species
Link to a reported medicinal use
Link to local names of Jaltomata species
Jaltomata dilloniana S. Leiva is here treated as a synonym of J. herrerae. Jaltomata herrerae has several flowers per inflorescence (up to 6 but usually 2 or 3) while the flowers of the type specimen of J. dilloniana are solitary (Leiva 2006). The type specimens of J. dilloniana have not been studied by T. M.
Figure 1. Flower of Jaltomata herrerae showing red nectar and three of five anthers dehisced
(Type locality but not type collection, T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
2. (T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
3. Side-view, anthers undehisced (T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
4. Corolla removed to show stamens (anthers undehsiced) surrounding style and ovary (Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
5. Intact flower from a side view, showing sepals (darker green) below corolla
(light green) (Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
6. Flowers, leaves and branches of Jaltomata herrerae growing in rocks in town (Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 802, ruler 21 cm long rests on branch, photo by Thomas Mione)
7. Flower, leaves and branches of Jaltomata herrerae
(Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 802, smallest units on ruler are mm, photo by Thomas Mione)
8.This corolla was removed from a flower and placed upside down to show purple pigment in the corolla tissue of the five nectar troughs!
The purple pigment remains (it is part of the corolla) even when the nectar (red) has been removed!
(Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, units on vertical ruler are mm, photo by Thomas Mione)
9. Back of flower. Sepals are dark green while corolla is light green. The two visual beacons (nectar and the purple pigment shown at left) together show through the sepals! (Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
10. Leaves at upper left and lower right are upside down
(Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, smallest units on ruler are mm, photo by Thomas Mione)
11. Leaves at upper left and lower right are upside down
(Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, smallest units on ruler are mm, photo by Thomas Mione)
12. It was clear that the roadside vegetation had been cut by a highway crew, and J. herrerae was taking advantage of the light and reduced competition, growing rapidly and flowering (Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
13. Ovary revealed by removal of corolla and stamens;
orange disk, presumably the nectary, around base of ovary
(Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)

Morphological Description:

Character Description Figures
Habit & Height
Shrub  
Branches, young
green, sparsely pubescent, the hairs finger (simple) or forked
7
older
woody, brown, to 1 cm diam
 
Leaves, blade texture & size
  10, 11
blade shape including margin   10,11
hairs pubescent on both faces, the hairs nearly all of the finger morph,
concentrated on veins, all non-gland-tipped
 
petiole   10,11
Inflorescence
flowers 2 (protologue); -3 (Mione 563); -6 at type locality (Mione et al. 801)
3
peduncle
green, pubescent, finger hairs unpigmented, non-gland-tipped, to 3 cm long, terete
3,9,11
pedicel
green, pubescent, finger hairs unpigmented, non-gland-tipped, to 1 cm long, having 5 raised longitudinal ridges evident with a hand lens
3, 9, 11
Calyx at flowering, color & size
green on both sides, 21 to 26 mm diam on pressed specimens 9
shape / position during anthesis stellate, the lobes noticeably longer than wide; sepals somewhat reflexed 3, 5
hairs the outer surface pubescent,
the hairs nonpigmented, non-gland-tipped, finger or forked
 
at fruit maturity reaching 4 cm across (with ripe fruit, Mione 564)  
Corolla color light green, the lobes darker than lobules
Macbride (1962) incorrectly gave the corolla color as "white"
 
green spots no  
purple ring no  
purple in base of corolla purple pigmentation in base of nectar troughs is revealed only by removal of nectar from the nectar troughs, or by inversion of removed corolla. Figure 8
shape and size
broadly campanulate, 1 - 1.5 cm long fresh material, depending on how it is pressed up to 2 cm long X 3-3.5 cm wide; 4 cm wide (fresh flower, Mione 564)
14, 15
lobes / lobules 10-lobed: the lobes and lobules alternating  
hairs interior pilosulose only at distal end,
exterior having finger or forked hairs unpigmented and non-gland-tipped on nerves
 
Yes, from stamen's base toward corolla's sinus/lobule
1, 4, 7, 11
Stamen length including anther
15 mm fresh, 12 - 14 mm on holotype, unequal in length until anthers dehisce  
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla is tubular or campanulate) 10 mm  
position of stamens: a) before anthers dehisce, b) after anthers dehisce a) connivent; b) connivent  
base expanded laterally? yes, as viewed from the ovary (ventral view) Figure 19
filaments light-green, unequal in length at least at the type locality, nearly glabrous (Mione 801) Figure 19
anther color yellow but connective green from dorsal view, wider below midlength,  
anther size 1.725 mm long (Herrera 3088)  
anther mucronate/mucronulate mucronate (Mione et al. 801, type locality); not mucronate (Bolivia, Mione 563/564)  
insertion of filament into anther    
anthers of a flower open simultaneously? No: Figure 1 shows a flower with 3 anthers open and two closed.
Another flower was seen having 2 anthers open and 3 closed (field notes, Mione 801)
 
pollen quantity per flower 86,458 - 92,969 per androecium (n=2, Mione 564)  
pollen grain size    
  light green, unpigmented straight non-gland-tipped finger hairs along 20 - 25% of length  
Stigma
capitate, slightly bilobed, darker green than style
1, 2, 4, 7, 11,13,15
Style
light green, straight, 1 mm diam, 14 mm long on holotype
13
Ovary
green except for orange disk, the disk 25% of ovary's bottom to top height
13
Ovules per ovary
403 - 412 (n=2, Mione 564)
no figure
Nectar orange to red
evidence of nectar robbery was evident (Mione et al. 801) but is not shown in figures
1, 13, 14
Herkogamy No, after anthers dehsisce there is no spatial separation between anthers and stigma 1
Protogyny apparently yes, a formal study has not been done, but some photos I took in Peru show flowers fully open while anthers remain undehisced 2, 3, 11
Fruit color (at maturity) and size orange, to 12 mm X 18 mm (Mione 564) ripe fruits not shown
Infructescence   16
Seeds per fruit up to 320 per fruit (Mione 564)
no figure
Seed Size 1.67 mm X 1.32 mm X 0.44 mm (Mione 564)
no figure
Chromosome number
n = 12 (Roe, 1967).
The specimen Roe used for his count (Iltis et al. 972) is cited below
no figure
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
no figure
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no figure
Self-Compatible?
no data
no figure
Seed Germination
seeds collected Jan 1992 were sown 29 Apr 2007, a few of them germinated 23 May 2007
no figure

Distribution and Ecology: southern Peru and Bolivia, along stone walls and disturbed habitats, from 3,000 - 3,758 m.  

Flowering and fruiting: specimens are collected when they are flowering and/or fruiting, so see collection date column in table below.

 


TYPE SPECIMEN
Department Province Locality altitude habitat date collector holotype isotypes
Cuzco
Cuzco
Saqsaywaman
3,500 m
 
Dec 1925 or 1926 or 1828
F. L. Herrera 828
US
F, G, photograph of F specimen, F neg. 49347 at WIS

 

Specimens examined:

  Department Province Locality altitude m habitat date collector(s)   Data Entry
Peru Huancavelica Huancavelica Yauli
3,500
sandy soil, sheltered under ledge of rock 11 Mar 1939 H. E. Stork & O. B. Horton 10859 K Mar 2010
                 
Peru Cuzco Anta El Chaccan, Cillapuya
3,680
no data 16 Apr 1973 G. R. Brunel 811 MO, NY
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Calca Amparaes, SW from Cuzco and S of town
3,330 - 3,400
center of town, around the bridge 13 Dec 1986 P. Nuñez 6648 CUZ, MO, NY
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco    
3,500
huertas y tierras cultivadas 15 Feb 1922 F. L. Herrera CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco   valley of rio Urubamba, 9 km (by road SW of Pisac) on road to and exactly 23 km from Cuzco
3,800
shrub community in Quebrada and along old abandoned dry irrigation ditch 30 Dec 1962 H. H. Iltis & D. & V. Ugent 972 K, US, WIS
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman (spelling on label is not the same as the spelling T.M. uses here)
3,500
no data
Mar 1929 F. L. Herrera 2351 F
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman (spelling on label is not the same as the spelling T.M. uses here)
3,600
no data
Jan 1931 F. L. Herrera 3088 US
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman (spelling on label is not the same as the spelling T.M. uses here)
3,600
no data
1 Apr 1944 C. Vargas C. 4166 WIS
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman (spelling on label is not the same as the spelling T.M. uses here)
3,550
no data
14 Dec 1944 C. Vargas C. 4836 WIS
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman (spelling on label is not the same as the spelling T.M. uses here)
3,400
laderas secas 27 Feb 1970 C. Vargas C. 21908 CUZ
Feb 2010
Peru Cuzco Cuzco Saqsaywaman
13 30' 1.8, W 71 58' 20.8"
3,689
roadside, direct sun most of the day 12 Jan 2010 T. Mione et al. 801;
Leiva G. et al. 4657
HAO, HUSA
Jan 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Chinchero
S 13 23 27.8", W 72 02 56.0"
3,758
rock wall 13 Jan 2010 T. Mione et al. 802;
Leiva G. et al. 4658
HAO, HUSA
Jan 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba En murallas incaicas de las ruinas de Chinchero, 13 25' S, 72 03' W
3,650
  14 Jun 1990 M. Hermann et al. 473 NY
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba below Chinchero ruins, place called Titiqaqa Wayk'o, 13 24' S, 72 3' W
3,750
along brook 3 Feb 1982 S. King et al. 114 NY
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Dist. Huayllabamba, entre quebrada de Huayoccari y laguna de Yanacocha hacia el Sur-Oeste (Huaran), 13 21' 15" S, 72 03' 55" W
3,000 - 3,600
borde de caminos 19 May 1989 A. Tupayachi 1028B CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Dist. Huayllabamba, Huayoccari - Yanacocha
3,200
borde de caminos June 1988 A. Tupayachi 678 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Yucay (I am not 100% sure I am reading the spelling correctly)
3,300
no data
26 Feb 1992 A. Tupayachi 202S CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba alturas
3,200
cercos 22 Jan 1983 C. Vargas C. 23641 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Ollantaytambo
3,000
no data
27 Apr 1915 O. F. Cook & G. B. Gilbert 417 NY, US
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Urubamba Urubamba
no data
no data
Dec 1937 J. Soukup 740 F
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Quispicanchis Marcapata, 176 km from Cuzco on road to Maldonado, 13 25' S, 70 54' W
3,150
remnant forest 8 Mar 1991 P. Nuñez & C. Paycarmayta 13127 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Paruro Huanoquite
3,380
chacras, camino bordes 16 Jan? 1942 C. Vargas C. 2373 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Anta 1 km before Mutuipata, on road from Limatambo to Anta, in Rio Apurimac drainage
3,150
roadside hedge 23 Dec 1962 H. H. Iltis & D. Ugent 772 WIS
Mar 2010
Peru Cuzco Paucartambo "Huailabamba" on specimen label but not found in index of place names.
3,658
on stone walls and in waste ground, slightly shaded and moist 6 May 1939 E. K. Balls 6731 F, US Mar 2010
                 
Peru Apurimac Andahuaylas Moyabamba
3,650
no data
4 Jan 1950 C. Vargas C. 8707 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Apurimac Abancay Saivite
3,650
no data
16 Jan 1950 C. Vargas C. 9044 CUZ
Mar 2010
Peru Apurimac Abancay NNW of Abancay at km 16 of Cuzco road
3,000
steep moist slopes, hedgerows, thickets and badly disturbed remnants of cloudforest 19 Dec 1962 H. H. Iltis & D. Ugent 651 WIS
Mar 2010
                   
Peru Ayacucho   Pampa de Chupas (handwriting makes words difficult to understand)
no data
no data
1968
J. Soukup 5523 US
Mar 2010
Peru Ayacucho La Mar I photographed the specimen label in Peru, and I can't clearly read the locality
3,600
I can't clearly read 7 Apr 2002 G. Vilcapoma 5725 MOL
Mar 2010
                   
Bolivia La Paz Bautista Saavedra Kanlaya 3566 over-run garden plot (huerta)
25 Dec 1979
R. Alvarez 92 NY Aug 2011
Bolivia La Paz Bautista Saavedra Charazani - Tal no data in einem Garten des Ortes 30 Mar 1982 T. Feuerer 10969a NY Aug 2011
Bolivia La Paz Bautista Saavedra Amarete - Tal 3260
no data
14 Apr 1982 T. Feuerer 11140a NY Aug 2011
Bolivia La Paz Bautista Saavedra Amarete - Tal 3280   12 May 1981 T. Feuerer 6386a NY Aug 2011

 

Charazani, Chari, 30 Mar 1982; town of Kanlaya, a right fork on road from Charazani to Amarete, 3600 m, 30 Dec 1991, Mione et al. 563 (CONN, LPB).  

Prov. Larecaja, Sorata, 19 Apr 1920, Holway & Holway 554 (NY, US);
Sorata, 2700-3200 m, 1818-1819, Mandon 430 (G, GH, NY);
Sorata, comunidad Chorquikoa, 3150 m, 1 Jan 1992, Mione et al. 564 (LPB);
Sorata, Feb 1886, Rusby 831 (GH, NY, US).

Literature Cited

abaove, Figure 14. Flower of Jaltomata herrerae (at type locality) showing red nectar (T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)

15. Mione et al. 564, Bolivia, Photo by T. Mione

16. Unripe fruits and branches of Jaltomata herrerae
(S. Leiva & T. Mione 4658, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)
17. Jaltomata herrerae was common along roadsides as we walked from higher ground to the type locality
(T. Mione, S. Leiva, L. Yacher 801, photo by Thomas Mione)
18. Garments for sale in Peru, roadside while driving from department Puno to Department Cuzco (photo by Thomas Mione)

Figure 19

 

Jaltomata herrerae

 

Type locality but not the type collection

 

This is the view of the stamen from the ovary. Note that filaments are nearly glabrous

One can see that stamens are expanded laterally at their base. The base of this stamen showing to the viewer was adpressed to the base of the ovary

 

 

Mione et al. 801

Photo taken through dissecting microscope after flower had been preserved in 70% ethanol for years