Jaltomata (Solanaceae) of Department Lima, Peru
revised Nov 2016
Link to Jaltomata homepage
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione,
Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Scholars Bulletin 2 (8): 476-484. 2016.
Link to the Jaltomata of lomas formations
Link to Jaltomata having red / orange nectar
Link to chromosome counts

Figure 1. A—Jaltomata andersonii, flower, photo by T. M.

B—J. aspera, flower, corona appears as a raised ridge of tissue around each of the five nectar troughs, photo by S. L. G.

C—J. bicolor, flowers in longitudinal view: in the flower on the left the lack of exsertion of the stamens shows that it is younger than the flower at right, photo by S. L. G.

D—J. dentata, leaves and flowers: the flower in the center has two dehisced anthers and three undehisced anthers showing that anthers of a flower do not dehisce simultaneously, photo by S. L. G.

E— Ripe fruits of J. dentata, photo by T. M.

F— J. propinqua, flower, photo by T. M.

G—J. sinuosa, flower, photo by T. M.

H—J. umbellata, flower with red nectar showing through the wall of the corolla, photo by Jamie Kostyun.

All scale bars equal one cm.

 

Eight Jaltomata species grow or have grown in Department Lima, Peru (Table 1). And J. sinuosa (Miers) Mione is included in the keys even though it has
not been collected in Department Lima because it is common in Peru to the north, east and south of Department Lima and thus there is a reasonable chance
that it grows in Department Lima. 

Key to the Jaltomata of Department Lima, Peru:

 

1. Flowers solitary……………………………………………………………………...………2

1. Two to more flowers per inflorescence………………………………………...…………3

2. Floral corona present; filaments glabrous or sparsely pubescent at base; nectar red; hairs not gland-tipped… J. aspera

2. Floral corona absent; filaments extremely villous at base; nectar transparent; hairs gland-tipped… J. andersonii

3. Plants woody; fruit orange at maturity ………………………………………………….. 4

3. Plants herbaceous; fruit black/purple at maturity …………………………… J. contorta

4. Corolla purple; nectar transparent; Andes ……………………………………………….5

4. Corolla pale-green or white, lomas habitat ………………………………………………8

5. Stamens longer than 6 mm; corolla lobes and lobules alternating, totaling 10 ……...6

5. Stamens shorter than 6 mm; corolla 5-lobed, no lobules………………….… J. dentata

6. Style about twice as long as stamens ……………………………………… J. propinqua

6. Style about the length of stamens …………………………………………………..……7

7. Corolla urceolate-tubular; stamens 26–35 mm long ………………………… J. bicolor

7. Corolla rotate; stamens 10 mm ………………………………………………...J. sinuosa

8. Stamens 9–11 mm long; nectar red/orange ………….……………….. J. umbellata

8. Stamens 4.57 mm; nectar transparent or nearly so ……………………. J. hunzikeri

 

 

Discussion

Throughout the range of Jaltomata the berries of at least 40 species are eaten by people, and in Department Lima the fruits of at least five species are eaten by people (Table 1). In general, people consume the berries when they find them ripe in the wild; we have not seen berries of Jaltomata species for sale.

Lomas communities are virtual islands that are high in endemics and are surrounded by hyper-arid desert. Lomas communities, although devoid of rain, receive moisture from fog that comes off the sea (Dillon, 2005). Three of the Jaltomata species of Department Lima (J. aspera, J. hunzikeri, J. umbellata) grow or grew in lomas. In the lomas community Jaltomata species flower July through October when fog from the sea provides moisture. However, in the Andes (J. aspera, J. bicolor, J. dentata, J. propinqua) flowering occurs mostly December through April. This renders populations of J. aspera of the Andes and the lomas community temporally isolated.

In the Department of Lima Jaltomata aspera and J. umbellata produce copious red-orange nectar and both grow in the lomas community. A diverse subset of additional Jaltomata species, mostly growing at high elevations, produces red/orange nectar (Leiva González, Mione & Yacher, 2016b).

During fieldwork, we were unable to find living plants of J. hunzikeri at or near the type locality or anywhere else; rather, we found human settlement where the type specimen was collected in 1938 (Mione et al., 2000), and thus there is the possibility that J. hunzikeri has gone extinct due to expansion of human settlement. Similarly, one of us (L. Y.) went to Amancaes (now an outskirt of the city of Lima) in February of 2014, where both J. aspera and J. umbellata have been collected, and noted expansion of human settlement into the lomas community there. Jaltomata was not encountered during collecting for a recent vascular flora of Amancaes: it is not listed by Trinidad et al. (2012). And so J. aspera and J. umbellata are likely extirpated from Amancaes. Given that the lomas communities are near the sea, and humans disproportionately settle near the sea, lomas communities are heavily impacted by humans. Jaltomata is not alone: Trinidad et al. (2012) documented the extirpation of several other species from the lomas community at Amancaes.

According to Ruiz & Pavon's (1799) protologue (see Mione et al., 1999), Jaltomata contorta was first collected in Department Lima, province Canta, near Obrajillo in 1788, and was described from plants cultivated in the Madrid Royal Botanic Garden. Graciela Vilcapoma Segovia, a botanist and long-time resident of Department Lima, told T. M. (personal communication, 2005) that she searched Obrajillo, knowing the area intimately, and never found this species. Furthermore, we were unable to find this species growing at or near the type locality nor anywhere else. Several Jaltomata species were originally described in the genus Saracha (Table 1) and have since been formally transferred to Jaltomata: the type specimen of S. diffusa Miers, collected in Department Lima, province Canta, appears to be conspecific with J. contorta. If so, J. contorta is known from at least two specimens. On the type specimens of S. diffusa Miers (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, 3: 447. 1849; Miers, Ill. S. Am. Plants 2: 17–18. 1849–1857; Mathews 775, Type: K!, F!; Isolectotype: W, F neg. 33016) (not Saracha diffusa Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, 3: 451. 1849 [= S. miersii Dunal & A. DC., Prodr. 13(2): 684. 1852], Type: Mexico, Galeotti 1169 K!, P!) the collection locality is given as “Cuesta de Purruchua.” However, in the protologue Miers gave the type locality as “Cuesta de Purruchucho” and Morton (unpubl.) gave the spelling as Purrochucho. We give the type locality as “Puruchuco,” as did Macbride (1962), a small town in Peru, Department Lima, province of Canta, at 11 33’ S, 76 48’ W and 2500 m elevation. Cuesta de Puruchuco is a subxerophytic steep slope within a few hundred meters below the town, but it is possible that Mathews regarded the higher hills near Puruchuco on the way to the town of Huamantanga as the Cuesta de Puruchuco (A. Granda Paucar, personal communication). Saracha diffusa Miers based on Mathews 775 is here considered a synonym of J. contorta. Jaltomata repandidentata (Dunal) Hunz. grows in Departments north, east and south of Department Lima, and is similar to J. contorta; both are herbaceous, have rotate corollas and black/purple fruits. However, J. repandidentata differs from J. contorta by having a curved style and anthers of a flower varying in size, and thus we are certain that the two collections of J. contorta are not actually J. repandidentata.

The department of Ancash borders the Department of Lima to the north. The Department of Lima has eight species (at least four endemic) while the Department of Ancash has at least 11 species. Only two species are shared by both Departments: We discovered J. andersonii in the Department of Lima and as such, its type locality is in Department Lima (Mione et al. 2004), and a single specimen of J. andersonii (M. Weigend & N. Dostert 97/173, F) has been tentatively identified from southeastern Department Ancash, but differs somewhat from the type collection and confirmation through fieldwork is needed. We confirmed through fieldwork in 1998, 2015 and 2016 that J. propinqua grows both in the Departments of Lima and Ancash. Considering the final stamen length (after anther dehiscence), populations from Department Lima have a style nearly twice the length of the stamens while populations from Department Ancash have styles that vary in length within a population, ranging from a few mm longer than the stamens to nearly twice the length of the stamens. Jaltomata sinuosa is a common species, and has been collected in Departments north, east and south of Department Lima, but not to our knowledge in Department Lima. We include it in our key because there is a reasonable chance that J. sinuosa grows in the Department of Lima.

 

Two species, J. aspera and J. umbellata, have copious red/orange floral nectar. Jaltomata aspera, J. hunzikeri and J. umbellata have been collected in lomas communities, virtual islands high in endemics that are surrounded by hyper-arid desert, and although devoid of rain, receive moisture from fog that comes off the sea. There are no recent collections of J. contorta and J. hunzikeri and these species may be extinct. Fruits of at least five species (J. aspera, J. bicolor, J. dentata, J. propinqua, J. umbellata) are eaten by people.


 

 

 

Table 1. The Jaltomata species of Peru, Department Lima.

 

J. contorta (R. & P.) Mione

J. andersonii Mione

J. aspera (R. & P.) Mione

J. bicolor (R. & P.) Mione

J. dentata
(R. & P.) Benítez

J. propinqua (Miers) Mione & M. Nee

J. sinuosa (Miers) Mione

J. umbellata (R. & P.) Mione & M. Nee

J. hunzikeri Mione

Figure

none

1A

1B

1C

1D

1F

1G

1H

none

 

Elevation (m)

 

2732

 

 

2300–3400

 

200–2290

 

2945–3820

 

2600–3600

 

2000–3000

1700–3500

 

300–500

 

80–300

Habit

 

herbaceous

 

herbaceous

herbaceous to suffrutescent

 

shrub

woody at base, herbaceous above

 

shrub

 

shrub

 

shrub

 

shrub

Plant Height (m)

0.6*

0.2

0.2–0.6

0.5–1.5 (–3)

0.2–0.5 (–0.7)

–1.2

–1.2

–1.3

–1

 

Hairs of young stems, and leaves

 

 

glabrous*

stems pilose, leaves sparsely, the hairs long

stems pubescent, leaves pubescent to glabrate, the hairs short

 

 

glabrate to sparsely pubescent

 

 

pubescent, the hairs short

 

 

pilose, the hairs long

 

 

pilose, the hairs long

 

 

pilose, the hairs long

 

 

villous, the hairs long

Hairs mostly gland-tipped?

 

not applicable

 

yes

 

no

 

no

 

no

 

yes

 

yes

 

yes

 

yes

Flowers Per Inflorescence

 

6–10

 

1

 

1

 

2–4

 

2–many

 

4–7 (–10)

 

2–4

 

4–9

 

–10

 

Both pedicel and peduncle?

 

yes

no,
single unarticulated axis

yes

yes

yes, but peduncle absent on parts of some specimens

yes

yes

yes

yes

Corolla shape

 

rotate

broadly crateriform-rotate

broadly crateriform-rotate

urceolate-tubular

crateriform

short-tubular with a reflexed limb

rotate with a recessed area holding nectar

tubular with a somewhat planar limb

probably short-tubular with a somewhat planar limb

Number of corolla lobes / lobules

 

5 / 0 *

 

5 / 0

 

5 / 0

 

5 / 5

 

5 / 0

 

5 / 5

 

5 / 5

 

5 / 0

 

5 / 0

 

Corolla size (mm)

 

12 across

 

–37 across

 

–42 across

 

–30 long

 

–15 across

the tube 3–4 long, the limb 19 – 27 across

 

–33 across

the tube 6.5–8 long, the limb 14–23 across

 

the limb 16–17 across

Corolla Color

whitish-yellow *

purple

pale-green

purple proximal 2/3, pale-green to cream distal 1/3

purple to whitish

purple

purple at center fading toward periphery

pale-green, with red nectar showing through the corolla

white with a blue ring near end of tube

Corolla having 5 pairs of green spots

 

probably yes

 

yes

 

no

 

no

 

yes

 

no data

 

yes

 

no

 

no data

Stamen length (mm)

no data

6.9–7.2

12–14

26–35

3–4

8–13

11

9.2–10.9

4.8–7

 

Anther color

 

no data

drying brown

cream or yellow or pale green

blue to purple

 

yellow

blue to purple

cream to pale-yellow with purple along sides and bottom

 

yellow

 

no data

 

Nectar color

no data, almost certainly clear

 

clear

 

red

 

clear

 

clear

 

clear

 

clear

 

red

no data,
probably clear

 

Fruit color

 

black*

 

no data,
probably orange

very pale green; described as orange on one specimen label

 

orange

 

orange

 

orange

 

orange

 

orange

 

no data,
probably orange

Fruits Eaten / Page number in Leiva González et al. (2016a)

 

no data

 

no data

 

yes

 

yes

 

49

 

yes


57

 

yes


70

 

yes

 

74

 

yes

 

77

 

no data

Months in flower

possibly flowering at the date of collection 3–7 Feb.

Jan.–Mar.

Sep.–Oct. in lomas; Jan., Mar., Apr. in Andes

Nov.July

Dec.Apr. and one specimen was collected in Aug.

Nov.–June

Dec.–Sep.

July–Oct., Jan.

Sep.

 

Endemic to Department Lima?

 

 

yes

 

no: one specimen is known from Dept. Ancash

 

 

yes

 

 

yes

no if Weberbauer 7602 (GH, NY, US) is conspecific; fieldwork in Dept.  Huancavelica is needed.

 

 

no

 

 

no

 

 

yes

 

 

yes

Common, rare?

rare or extinct, see text for details

 

apparently rare

not common

 

common

 

common

 

not rare, possibly common

 

common

 

rare

rare or extinct, see text for details

 

 

 

 

 

Synonyms and page number(s) in Macbride (1962)

Saracha contorta R. & P., p. 32; S. diffusa Miers based on Mathews 775, p. 34.

none

Saracha ciliata Miers, p. 32; S. lacrima-virginis Bitter, p. 32; S. urbaniana Bitter & Dammer, p. 38; Hebecladus asperus (R. & P.) Miers, p. 30.

Hebecladus bicolor (R. & P.) Miers, p. 30; Atropa biflora R. & P., p. 30; H. intermedius Miers, p. 35.

Saracha dentata R. & P., p. 33; S. lobata Bitter, p. 35; S. sordideviolacea Bitter, p. 37.

Saracha propinqua Miers, p. 36;

Hebecladus propinquus (Miers) Bitter, p. 36.

See Mione  et al. (2000) for a complete list of synonyms.

Not listed by Macbride (1962).

Hebecladus umbellatus (R. & P.) Miers, p. 37; H. turneri Miers, p. 38.

The type specimen of J. hunzikeri was listed by Macbride (1962) as Saracha villosa (Zucc.) G. Don (p. 40) but this binomial is not a synonym (Mione et al., 2000).

Authors’ collection numbers

 

none

 

616, 620, 622

 

615

 

612, 617, 795, 880

 

609, 610, 611, 613, 618, 881

 

621, 868

668, 672, 677, 708, 733, 736, 815, 848, 849, 851, 852, 877–879

 

432, 623, 730

 

none

 

 

                                          * according to the protologue


 

 

Acknowledgements

I thank Gregory J. Anderson for both review prior to submission and, with Gabriel Bernardello, providing an environment conducive to the birth of this project, David Spooner for both reviewing the manuscript prior to submission and sending to T. M. his specimens, Arturo Granda P. and Graciela Vilcapoma for both sending to T. M. specimens and for discussion of J. aspera and J. contorta, Nathaniel T. Mione for preparation of the figure, and Kanchi Natarajan Gandhi for assistance with nomenclature. Rene Chavez sent to Tilton Davis IV seeds of J. umbellata and T. Davis generously passed the seeds on to T. M.

 

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