Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J. L. Gentry

Arizona, USA to Ecuador

revised 5 Oct 2017

 

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA

 

Floral Biology

Link to Jaltomata of Colombia & Venezuela

Link to Jaltomata of Arizona, Mexico and Central America

Link to Jaltomata of Ecuador

Link to Jaltomata of Costa Rica

Link to reported medicinal uses         Link to chromosome counts

 

Figure 1. The left flower of this inflorescence is pistillate (anthers undehsiced) while the right flower is hermaphroditic. Units are mm. Accession 401 from Chiapas, Mexico, grown and photographed by T. Mione in Connecticut.

Figure 2. Some fruits of this infructescence are ripe and others are still green. Accession 401 grown and photographed by T. Mione in Connecticut.

Figure 3. Whole plant showing branches and leaves. Ruler (12") horizontally on top of pot for scale. Accession 401 grown and photographed by T. Mione in Connecticut.

Figure 4. Back of flower showing calyx. Accession 401 grown and photographed by T. Mione in Connecticut.


Table 1.

Character

Description

Figures

Root

"tuberous root" (Kearney & Peebles 14438, Arizona, USA); "rootstocks are large" (Davis 1130, Chihuahua, Mexico); "rootstock" (Bye 9889, Chihuahua, Mexico); "vertical swollen roots" (Bye10033, Chihuahua, Mexico); "tuberous root" (Gentry et al. 20250). Roots arising adventitiously from stem where stem contacts ground for an extended period of time (cultivated in CT, Mione 593)

 

Habit & Height

herbaceous, to 1.8 m high; erect to procumbent, an otherwise erect plant can produce procumbent branches if, while the plant is young, the primary branch is broken or consumed by herbivores

 

Branches, young

squareish in cross section, green

 

older

5-sided or angled or with 5 raised longitudinal ridges, green to purple

 

Leaves, arrangement, size

alternate, membranous, to 11 cm wide X 21 cm long including petiole

 

shape

ovate, entire to toothed

 

hairs

glabrous to unaided eye to pubescent, the finger hairs non-gland-tipped

 

petiole

to 4.5 cm; winged, the wing tapering to the base

 

Inflorescence

umbellate, axillary, to 18 flowers per inflorescence (Table 2)

 

peduncle

usually having raised longitudinal ridges, to 85 mm long, rarely absent, green to purplish-green, sparsely to densely pubescent with whitish finger hairs (Table 4)

 

pedicel

usually having raised longitudinal ridges, to 30 mm, green, sparsely to densely pubescent with whitish finger hairs (Table 4)

 

Calyx at flowering

sepals partly fused, stellate in outline, 9 - 13 mm diam, completely green or green with purple on main veins on abaxial face, planar to reflexed

 

Calyx at fruit maturity

1.8 - 2.5 cm diam, green to purple, planar to reflexed and revealing the fruit in side view (Figure 2) or bowl-like over the fruit partially hiding the fruit in side view (Figure 17)

2, 18

Corolla, lobes/lobules

5 lobes, or 10-total lobes and lobules (alternating)(Table 12)

 

shape and size

stellate (figure 1), expanding with the elongation of the filaments on the flower's 2nd morning (Figure 16, Table 12) and then 20 - 31 mm diam

 

color

pale-green, light green

 

hairs

adaxial face pilosulose the hairs gland- or droplet-tipped when fresh

 

radial corolla thickenings

no, only a subset of the red/orange fruited Jaltomata have this

 

Stamens, length including anther

equal, epipetalous at base of corolla, 4.5 to 7 mm long

 

filaments

straight; having expanded bases; angle (from proximal to distal) away from the style early in hermaphroditic phase
(the filaments of accession 321 are connivent)

 

anther color

ovate, yellow when undehisced, brownish after dehiscence

 

anther size

1.6 to 2.8 mm long undehisced and fresh from garden (not pressed, not preserved in spirits)

 

anther mucronate / mucronulate?

no or yes, depending on the collection

 

insertion of filament into anther

the filament inserting on the lower ventral face

confirmed, Oct 2017, by dissecting fresh fls of 599 

anthers of a flower open simultaneously?

usually

 

pollen quantity per flower

see Table 6, below

 

pollen grain size

see Table 5, below

 

corona

no

 

Gynoecium

glabrous except for stigma papillae

 

Stigma

capitate

 

Style

straight, slender, 2.5 - 6 mm long

 

Ovary

the disk around the base of the ovary orangish, yellowish or off-white

 

Ovules per ovary

66 - 204

 

Nectar

unpigmented, visible at base of corolla during both pistillate and hermphroditic phases (Table 7)

 

Herkogamy

yes, stigma is a few mm away from the anthers

 

Protogyny

yes

 

Fruit color at maturity, and fruit size

black or very dark purple, a few collections grown for study produce fruits that are green at maturity; to 14 X 17 mm, usually remaining attached to parent plant (not dropping at maturity)

 

Seeds per fruit

4 to 198

 

Seed Size, Shape

see Table 8, below; ovate to reniform

20

Chromosome number

all counts but one n = 12; one published count for which the voucher herbarium specimen has not been seen 2n = 48 (Mione 1992, page 142)

 

Growability in Connecticut, USA

easy for most accessions, difficult for some

 

How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?

39 days
(accession 590, outdoors in Connecticut USA, manually pollinated 18 Aug, fruit dropped 26 Sept 2010)

 

Self-Compatible?

Yes (see table 10)

 

Seed Germination

see Table 11 (scroll way down).

In Connecticut, USA, where I have grown outdoor plants of J. procumbens, seeds in fruits dropped to the ground in the fall have germinated during the following spring, becoming weeds in the garden where they were grown the year before.

 

Ratio of Pollen to Ovules

see table at http://web.ccsu.edu/faculty/mione/procumbens.Floral.Biology.html

 

Character

Description of Jaltomata procumbens

Figures on this web page

Vernacular Names: see Davis & Bye 1982, and follow this link.

 

Table 2. Number of Flowers Per Inflorescence including buds, Jaltomata procumbens grown in Connecticut, USA

collection

 

Flowers Per Inflorescence, Range

Altitude m

comments

R. Bye 10083 (Mione 506)

Mexico, Chihuahua

4 - 5

1,675

Data collected 9 to 27 September 1991 at Univ of Connecticut, 5 observations

R. Bye 10084 (Mione 350)

Mexico, Chihuahua

2 - 5

1,675

 

T. Davis 1130 (Mione 353)

Mexico, Chihuahua

3

2,251

 

E. Dean 260 (Mione 570)

Mexico, Hidalgo

5

2,195

 

Mione 586

Mexico, Puebla

4 - 5

2,500

 

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

4 - 6

2,750

 

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

11 - 13

1,650

 

N. Sawyer 623 (Mione 395)

Costa Rica

6 - 8

1,740

 

L. Bohs seed 95-4 (Mione 635)

Costa Rica

6 - 10

1,375

 

Mione 583

Costa Rica

5 - 11

1,560

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024 (Mione 318)

Guatemala

8

2,750

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

8 - 18

2,840

 

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

8 - 9

1,100-2,300

 

 

Table 3. Do filaments Angle Out (Figure 1) During Flower's Hermaphroditic Phase?
Jaltomata procumbens
grown in Connecticut, USA.

collection (grown in Connecticut as)

 

Do filaments Angle Out?

Altitude m

figure 28.2, in Davis, 1986

Mexico, Chihuahua

Yes

no data

R. Bye 10084 (Mione 350)

Mexico, Chihuahua

Yes

1,675

R. Bye 10033 (Mione 502)

Mexico, Chihuahua

Yes

1,744

R. Bye 10200 (Mione 548)

Mexico, Michoacan

Yes

market at 2,140

T. Mione 587 Mexico, Distrito Federal Yes, very strongly 2,750

T. Mione & F. Basurto 590

Mexico, Distrito Federal

Yes

2,900

T. Mione et al. 599

Mexico, Morelos

Yes but not as strongly as those
shown in Figure 1, see Figure 15.

2,230

T. Mione et al. 593

Mexico, Mexico

Yes but not as strongly as those
shown in figure 1.

2,600

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

Yes

1,650

L. Bohs seed 95-4 (Mione 635)

Costa Rica

Yes

1,375

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024 (Mione 318)

Guatemala

Yes

2,750

D. M. Spooner et al. 7035 (Mione 320)

Guatemala

Yes but not as strongly as those
shown in figure 1, see figure 6.

2,680

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

No, filaments connivent

2,054

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

Yes

2,840

Grown as Mione 838

Guatemala

Yes, but only about 20 degrees, figure 21

2,714

Grown as Mione 842

Guatemala

Yes, very stongly.

2,546

Grown as Mione 844

Guatemala

Yes

2,291

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

Yes

1,100-2,300

 

Table 4. Peduncle & Pedicel length among collections of Jaltomata procumbens grown in Connnecticut

collection

 

Peduncle Length, Range (mm)

Pedicel Length, Range (mm)

Altitude m

R. Bye 10084 (Mione 350)

Mexico, Chihuahua

1 - 17

8 - 20

1,675

E. Dean 260 (Mione 570)

Mexico, Hidalgo

16 (no range, single value)

10 (no range, single value)

2,195

Mione 586

Mexico, Puebla

10 - 27

15 - 23

2,500

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

42 - 62

9.5 - 23

1,650

N. Sawyer 623 (Mione 395)

Costa Rica

25 - 42

4 - 18.5

1,740

L. Bohs seed 95-4 (Mione 635)

Costa Rica

39 - 75

10 - 11

1,375

Mione 583

Costa Rica

27 - 70

7.5 - 20

1,560

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024 (Mione 318)

Guatemala

30 - 69

8 - 12

2,750

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

10 - 24

11 - 16

2,840

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

37 (no range, single value)

10 (no range, single value)

1,100-2,300

 

Table 5. Pollen Size Among Collections, J. procumbens, from plants grown in Connecticut unless indicated otherwise

Collection

 

Mean Size
(Sample Size)

Range (micrometers)

Polar View Measured

Stored in 70% ethanol prior to measured, or
fresh when measured

Date Measured
Measured By

Bye 10033 (Mione 502)

Mexico, Chihuahua

35.5
(6)

33.75 - 37.5

probably not

Fresh

not recorded
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Bye 9858
(Mione 503)

Mexico, Chihuahua

36.4
(4)

35 - 37.5

probably not

Fresh

not recorded
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 586

Mexico,
Puebla

37.22
(20)

32.13 - 40.5

probably not


Fresh

Oct 1995, Aug 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

36.99
(8)

33.9 - 39.27

probably not


Fresh

Aug 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

E. Dean 252 (Mione 569)

Mexico, San Luis Potosi

35.91
(12)

32.13 - 38.91

probably not

Fresh

Aug 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 596

Mexico, Mexico

34.9
(20)

29.9 - 37.5

probably not

Fresh

1994, 1995, 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 599

Mexico

32.6
(20)

30-35

yes

Stored in 70% ethanol prior

2016, Thomas Mione

cotton blue in lactoglycerol

Mione 599

Mexico

31.525
(50)

30 - 33.75

yes


Stored in 70% ethanol prior

2007 or 2008
Alison L. Grissom

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 602 / 603

Mexico

24.47
(15)

22 - 27.25

yes

Flower collected in Mexico then stored in 70% ethanol

June 2012,
measured by a student,
15 grains

cotton blue in lactophenol

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

30.725
(10)

23.25 - 33.75

probably not


Fresh

July 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038, grown as Mione 321

Guatemala

27.6

(20)

25.5-28.8

yes

Stored in 70% ethanol prior

Feb 2016
Thomas Mione

cotton blue in lactoglycerol

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038, grown as Mione 321

Guatemala

26.44
(33)

25 - 27.5

yes

Stored in 70% ethanol prior

April 2014
Melissa R. Luna

Cotton blue in lactoglycerol

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

30.25
(9)

28.16 - 33.44

probably not


Fresh

Sep 1995
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

N. Sawyer 623 (Mione 395)

Costa Rica

30.4
(28)

27.85 - 32.6

probably not


Fresh

Sep 1995
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

Mione 583

Costa Rica

31.55
(22)

26.4 - 35.7

probably not


Fresh

Sep 1995, Aug 1996
T. Mione

cotton blue in lactophenol

 

 



Table 6. Pollen Quantity and Ovule Quantity Per Flower

Collection

 

Pollen Quantity

Ovules

Ratio of Pollen to Ovules

Counted By, Year Counted

grown for study, or flower preserved during fieldwork in Latin America

R. Bye 10084 (grown as Mione 350)

Mexico, Chihuahua

46,563 to 46,750

pollen counts by T. M. & Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

2 flowers, grown for study in Connecticut, USA

R. Bye 10033 (grown as Mione 502)

Mexico, Chihuahua

48,500 to 51,667

T. Mione;
Elisabeth
dos Santos 2011

3 flowers, grown for study in Connecticut, USA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

R. Bye 10083 (grown as Mione 506)

Mexico, Chihuahua

140,000

86

1,628

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

grown in CCSU greenhouse 2016

R. Bye 10083 (grown as Mione 506)

Mexico, Chihuahua

65,000

61

1,066

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

grown in CCSU greenhouse 2016

 

 

 

 

T. Mione et al. 593

Mexico, Mexico

52,500

98

536

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

grown in CCSU greenhouse 2015

T. Mione et al. 593

Mexico, Mexico

87,500

142

616

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

grown in Copernicus Hall outdoor garden 1995

T. Mione et al. 593

Mexico, Mexico

73,500

Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

 

 

 

 

 

Mione 602 / 603

Mexico, Distrito Federal

25,500

152

168

pollen by Emmett P. Varricchio 2012

collected in Mexico, not from a plant grown for study

Mione 602 / 603

Mexico, Distrito Federal

51,750

156

332


Thomas Mione

collected in Mexico, not from a plant grown for study

Mione 602 / 603

Mexico, Distrito Federal

41,538

121

343


Thomas Mione

collected in Mexico, not from a plant grown for study

Mione 602 / 603

Mexico, Distrito Federal

37,917

110

345


Thomas Mione

collected in Mexico, not rom a plant grown for study

 

 

 

 

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

92,500

98

944

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

grown late 2015 new CCSU greenhouse

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

59,688

Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

 

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

127,500

149

856

Melissa R. Luna; ovules by Thomas Mione, 2013

from a plant grown outdoors in Connecticut, USA

Mione 587

Mexico, Distrito Federal

100,000

138

725

Melissa R. Luna; ovules by Thomas Mione, 2013

from a plant grown outdoors in Connecticut, USA

Mione 586

Mexico,
Puebla

39,250

Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

 

 

 

 

 

Mione & Bye 599

Mexico, Morelos

 

193

 

ovule count by T. M.

 

Mione & Bye 599

Mexico, Morelos

74,375

126

590

pollen count by Emmett P. Varricchio,
ovules by T. M., 2012

 

Mione & Bye 599

Mexico, Morelos

72,500

114

636

pollen count by Melissa R. Luna,
ovules by T. M., 2013

from plant grown by John Powell at his home 2006, flower collected by T. M.

Mione & Bye 599

Mexico, Morelos

140,000

114

1,228

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd,
ovules by T. M., 2016

from plant grown by John Powell at his home 2006, flower collected by T. M.

Mione & Bye 599

Mexico, Morelos

82,500

192

430

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd,
ovules by T. M., 2015

from plant grown in Copernicus Hall outdoor garden 1995

 

 

 

 

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

143,750

Elisabeth dos Santos, 2011

flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

140,000

204

686

pollen count by Christopher L. Chan, ovules by T. M., 2013

flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)

Mexico, Chiapas

200,000

204

980

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2015

flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

 

 

 

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024 (Mione 318)

Guatemala

80,000

146

548

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd,
ovules by T. M., 2016

flower from plant grown in 2002 in Connecticut, USA

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024 (Mione 318)

Guatemala

85,625

Elisabeth dos Santos, 2011

D. M. Spooner et al. 7024
(Mione 318)

Guatemala

92,500

146

634

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

Grown in Connecticut, not sure if in greenhouse or in garden

 

 

 

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

197,500

66

2,992

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA, 2002

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

177,500

72

2,465

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in CCSU greenhouse, USA, 2015

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

135,000

96

1,406

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, either in CCSU greenhouse or in outdoor garden, USA

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

87,500

72

1,215

Melissa R. Luna, ovules by Thomas Mione, 2013

plant grown in Connecticut, USA

D. M. Spooner et al. 7038 (Mione 321)

Guatemala

120,450

108

1,115

Emmett P. Varricchio, ovules by Thomas Mione, 2013

plant grown in Connecticut, USA

 

 

 

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

62,500

98

638

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M. 2016

plant grown in CCSU greenhouse, USA, 2015

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

50,000

104

481

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA, 2002

D. M. Spooner et al. 7052 (Mione 324)

Guatemala

128,250


Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

 

 

 

 

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7035 (Mione 320)

Guatemala

140,625

Elisabeth dos Santos 2011

 

D. M. Spooner et al. 7035 (Mione 320)

Guatemala

95,0000

178

534

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2015

plant grown outdoors in Connecticut, USA, 2002

D. M. Spooner et al. 7035 (Mione 320)

Guatemala

240,000

152

1,579

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2015

plant grown outdoors in Connecticut, USA, 2002

D. M. Spooner et al. 7035 (Mione 320)

Guatemala

77,500

90

861

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in CCSU greenhouse, USA, 2015

 

 

 

 

J. A. Fischmann 8/11/2012, individuals 15 - 19 (Mione 837)

Guatemala

105,000

136

772

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in CCSU greenhouse, USA, 2015-2016

 

 

 

 

J. A. Fischmann 8/22/2012 proc A-E (Mione 838)

Guatemala

117,500

130

904

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA, outdoors in 2014

J. A. Fischmann 8/22/2012 proc A-E (Mione 838)

Guatemala

120,000

118

1,017

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd
 
ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in greenhouse, Connecticut, USA, in 2015

 

 

 

 

J. A. Fischmann 8/11/2012, #8 (Mione 844)

Guatemala

87,500

92

951

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA

J. A. Fischmann 8/11/2012, #8 (Mione 844)

Guatemala

87,500

94

931

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA

 

 

 

 

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

89,063

Elisabeth dos Santos, 2011

 

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

185,000

96

1,927

pollen count by Kenneth C. Plourd, ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in CCSU greenhouse, USA, 2015

D'Arcy 18063 (Mione 580)

Honduras

87,500

113

774

pollen count by Melissa R. Luna,
ovules by T. M., 2016

plant grown in Connecticut, USA

Collection

 

Pollen Quantity

Ovules

Ratio of Pollen to Ovules


Counted By, Year Counted

grown for study, or flower preserved during fieldwork in Latin America

 

 

Table 7. Nectar is Produced During Both Pistillate & Hermaphroditic Phases

accession

nectar drops seen at base of corolla,
anthers undehisced

nectar drops seen at base of corolla after all anthers dehisced

Location of Observation

320

Yes, two plants

Yes, one plant

University of Connecticut greenhouse, November & December 2012

321

Yes, one plant

Yes, one plant

University of Connecticut greenhouse, November & December 2012

580

Yes, two plants

Yes, two plant

University of Connecticut greenhouse, November & December 2012

586

Yes, one plant

Yes, one plant

University of Connecticut greenhouse, November & December 2012

587 Yes, one plant Yes, one plant Greenhouse, New Britain, Connecticut, 2016

599

Yes, one plant

Yes, one plant

University of Connecticut greenhouse, 30 July 2012. CCSU 31 Oct 2016

838

Yes, one plant, three different flowers on three different days

Yes, one plant, several flowers on different days

Outdoors, New Britain, Connecticut, July 2014

844

Yes, one plant

Yes, one plant

Greenhouse, New Britain, Connecticut, Sep 2014

 

 

Table 8. Seed Size Among Collections, J. procumbens
Seeds collected in the wild,
except seeds from plants grown in Connecticut, USA were used for 596, 636 & 599.


(sample size)

 

Mean Length mm
(range)

Mean Width mm
(range)

Mean Thickness mm
(range)

Mean Volume mm3

Date Measured
Measured By

Data Entry

R. Bye 10084 (Mione 350)
(5)

Mexico, Chihuahua

1.84
(1.72 - 2)

1.62
(1.52-1.72)

0.58
(0.56 - 0.6)

1.75
1.46 - 1.93)

not recorded
T. Mione

June 2010

E. Dean 252 (Mione 569).
(6)

Mexico, San Luis Potosi

1.77
(1.71-1.83)

1.54
(1.47 - 1.65)

0.63
(0.57-0.69)

1.71
(1.49-1.90)

not recorded
T. Mione

June 2010

R. Bye 10200 (Mione 548)
(6)

Mexico, Michoacan

1.85
(1.72 - 2.04)

1.45
1.35-1.62

0.57
0.54 - 0.63

1.49
1.29 - 1.72

not recorded
T. Mione

July 2010

Mione 596
(5)

Mexico,
Mexico

1.84
(1.8 - 1.92)

1.63
(1.5 - 1.77)

0.62
(0.6-0.66)

1.85
(1.77-2.04)

not recorded
T. Mione

July 2010

Mione 586
(7)

Mexico,
Puebla

1.88
(1.74 - 1.995)

1.59
(1.47 - 1.74)

0.5
(0.45-0.54)

1.49
(1.28-1.78)

not recorded
T. Mione

May 2010

T. Mione & R. Bye 599 (10)

Mexico, Morelos

1.58
(1.48-1.66)

1.36
(1.2-1.44)

0.47
(0.44-0.48)

1.01
(0.83-1.16)

July 2015
T. Mione

July 2015

C. Eber s.n. (Mione 401)
(7)

Mexico, Chiapas

1.24
(1.14 - 1.35)

0.95
(0.87 - 1.05)

0.398
(0.36 - 0.44)

0.47
(0.39 - 0.53)

not recorded
T. Mione

May 2010

D. M. Spooner 7038 (Mione 321)(n = 10)

Guatemala

1.37
(1.28 - 1.48)

1.12
(1 - 1.2)

0.51
(0.42-0.54)

0.785
(0.62-0.93)

July 2015
T. Mione

July 2015

L. Bohs seed 95-4 (Mione 635)
(8)

Costa Rica

1.27
(1.23 - 1.32)

1.0
(0.93 - 1.035)

0.43
(0.39-0.45)

0.55
(0.48 - 0.615)

July 2000
T. Mione

May 2010

L. Bohs 2686, seed 96-49 (Mione 636)
(7)

Costa Rica

1.07
(1.02 - 1.14)

0.97
(0.93 - 0.99)

0.46
(0.45-0.54)

0.48
(0.44 - 0.56)

June 2000
T. Mione

July 2010

N. Sawyer 623 (Mione 395)
(5)

Costa Rica

1.32
(1.29-1.35)

1.1
(1.05-1.08)

0.44
(0.42-0.47)

0.62
(0.57-0.68)

Mar 1997
T. Mione

May 2010

Mione 583
(6)

Costa Rica

1.36
(1.32 - 1.41)

1.0975
(1.05-1.17)

0.53
(0.51-0.56)

0.79
(0.75 - 0.82)

No Data
T. Mione

June 2010

 

 

Fruits Remain Attached To Parent Plant After Ripening:
In general fruits of J. procumbens remain attached to the parent plant after fruits ripen (except for unpublished variety or subspecies tlaxcala, discussed by my former student Larry Coe, 1997). I observed ripe fruits remaining attached on a plant of accession 548 and to plants of accession 321 (fall 2004). I observed ripe fruits remaining attached on plants of accessions 320, 506, 569, and 599 (Fall 2012).

Demonstration of Lack of Agamospermy: Gregory J. Anderson emasculated 10 flowers on plants of accession 321 in the University of Connecticut greenhouse, while filaments were short and anthers were undehisced (year 2012). Zero fruits were set on plants that otherwise abundantly self-set fruit in a pollinator-free greenhouse.

Synonyms:
Atropa erecta Zuccagni may be a synonym
Jaltomata contorta (R. & P.) Mione
Saracha alata Dunal
Saracha conspersa Miers
Saracha diffusa (based on Mathews 775) Miers
Saracha zuccagniana G. Don is probably a synonym.

Saracha glabrata Miers. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2 3: 448. 1849. Mione studied the type specimen belonging to K, collected by Coulter 1226 in Zacatecas, Mexico (information from label on type specimen). Kew's type specimen was not photographed by Mione before it was returned to Kew.

Saracha sessilis Greene.

 

Figure 5. Jaltomata procumbens complex. The three central leaves show their upper sides. The leaves at the left and right show their undersides. Accession 321 has its own web page. Leaves from plants grown in the same environment, scanned by T. Mione, 17 Aug 2010.

Figure 6. Jaltomata procumbens. Note that the corolla's adaxial face is pilosulose, all five anthers have dehisced, the stigma is green while the style is pale-green, and filaments are pubescent. Note filaments do not angle out strongly like those of a different accession shown in Figure 1 (D. Spooner et al. 7035, grown as Mione 320, photo by Thomas Mione, 2012).

 

Figure 7.

Jaltomata procumbens

Pistillate phase flower illustrated in black and white,
above "3" (stigma shape not rendered accurately)

Hermaphroditic phase flowers attached to plant at mid-height and lower, rendered in color

Mature fruits very dark purple-black, shown as "4"

Hort. Halensis t. 14, 1841 - 53



Geographic Distribution of Jaltomata procumbens

Arizona, USA (Toolin et al. 1979, Lehr & Pinkava 1980, McLaughlin & Bowers 1990) into Venezuela (Benítez de Rojas 2010), Colombia and Ecuador with certainty. Outside of its natural distribution, this species has also been collected in Maryland, U.S.A. on a chrome ore pile at a seaport (Reed 1964).

 

Table 9. Specimens Studied:

Country

primary political

secondary political

locality

elevation m

habitat

date

collector

U.S.A.

Arizona

Cochise Co.

Ft. Huachuca, camp Greenlee, picnic area at north end of Huachuca canyon

1524

Overstory to 40' with Chenopodium, grasses.

14 Sept 197_

T. Davis 671 (US)

 

U.S.A.

Arizona

Cochise Co.

Bisbee, Spring Canyon, NW end of town

1707

weed in yard

30 Aug 1984

A.C. Sanders et al. 5179 (COLO)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

Chihuahua

Guachochic

bridge over Rio Urique (Creel-Guachochic road)

1,675

along bank of river and slopes and arroyos above river in mixed pine-oak forest with Agave and Acacia

22 Oct 1980

R. Bye 10083 grown as Mione 506

 

Mexico

Hidalgo

mpio. Talnchinol

2 km S de Tlanchinol, hacia Apantlaso

1700

bosque perturbado de liquidámbar y encinos principalmente; suelo casi negro, pedregoso

7 Nov 1980

R. Hernández M. 5367 (COLO, MEXU not seen)

 

Mexico

Michoacan

Mpio. Tancitaro no data 1890 common in moist, shadey places 16 Aug 1940 W. C. Leavenworth 598 (GH)  

Mexico

Michoacan

Mpio. Patzcuaro

Main Market; vendor indicated she obtained fruits from farmers near San Rafael Chapultepec ca. 10 km NE of Patzcuaro

market at 2140, fruits from farms at 2100 m

agricultural zone with irrigation

23 Oct 1981

R. Bye & E. Linares 10200, grown as Mione 548

gathered from plants in maize fields

Mexico

Distrito Federal

 

near Eslava

handwriting difficult to read, possibly 8000'

lava beds

19 Jul 1910

H. H. Rusby

 

Mexico

Distrito Federal

Delegación Coyoacán

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Jardín Botánico Exterior

no data

weeds in flowerpots of the greenhouse

21 Apr 1983

R. Bye 12,147 (COLO)

 

Mexico

Distrito Federal

 

near Santa Fé

no data

no data

23 Aug 1903

J. N. Rose & Jos. H. Painter 6518 (US)

same ecotype or unnamed variety as Bye & Linares 10219

Mexico

Distrito Federal

 

El Mirador Milpa Alta, across street from and in corn field, and at edge of Opuntia farmfield

2,750

open sun

26 June 1994

T. Mione 587

 

Mexico

Morelos

Tetela del Volcán

Tetela del Volcán, 18 53.4' N, 98 43.7' W, NE of town

2200

in along margin of maize fields

1 Nov 1981

R. Bye & Linares 10219 (MEXU not seen)

maize fields

Mexico

Nayarit (inferred by Mione, not listed on specimen label)

Territorio de Tepic

Foothills between Acaponeta & Pedro Paulo

no data

no data

2 Aug 1897

J. N. Rose 1928 (US)

 

Mexico

Guerrero

mpio. Tlacotepec

A 17 km al SO de Filo de Caballo

2400

frequente; veg. bosque mesófilo de montaña

17 Aug 1985

J. C. Soto Nuñez y S. Román García 10042 (US)

same ecotype or unnamed variety as Bye & Linares 10219

Mexico

Puebla

no data

15 - 18 miles NE of Tehuacan along road to Veracruz

1,981 - 2,134

on limestone

5 Aug 1963

Gentry et al. 20250 (US)

same ecotype or unnamed variety as Bye & Linares 10219

Mexico

Veracruz

  Huayacocotla, camino a arroyo Hondo 1900   22 Oct 1970 R. H. M. & R. C. Trigos 834 (GH)  

Mexico

Veracruz

no data

Orizaba

1,524
(1,600 according to Morton in protologue)

no data

10 Aug 1924

G. L. Fisher 257 (US)

type specimen of Saracha procumbens var. pilosula Morton

Mexico

Veracruz

Lomagrande

Orizaba

2,743

Along hedgerows and in maize fields, moist ground

26 Aug 1938

E. K. Balls 5354 (GH, US)

collector wrote "to 10 ft."

               
Mexico Oaxaca   Coyula 2134   15 Aug 1895 L. C. Smith 692  

Mexico

Chiapas

 

Town of Tzabalhó, just north of Chenalho (San Pedro Chenalho), Estimated by T. M. to be about 16 56/57 N, 92 37 W and , from the Oxchuc 1:50,000 quadrangle.

estimated by Mione: 1,600 to 1,700 from the Oxchuc 1:50,000 quadrangle

growing beside house in cafetal, near milpa; rainfall is about 2077 mm per year. Mean annual temperature about 18.4 C

C. Eber and Margarita (no last name provided) s.n., grown as Mione 401 shown in photos at top

 

Mexico

Chiapas

San Juán Cancuc

Ch'e Wakax, 3 km al sur del poblado

1,219

cafetales, milpas

 

E. Sántiz Cruz 759 (MO)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

Quezaltenango

 

western slope of Volcán de Zunil, Fuentes Georginas

2,850

wet forest

4 Mar 1939

P. C. Standley 67441 (F, US)

 

Guatemala

San Marcos

 

8 km N of town square of San Marcos on rd to Tacaná, at km 258 road marker, 15 05' S, 91 47' W

2,750

 

shade in sandy soil

24 Sep 1995

D M. Spooner et al. 7024 (grown as Mione 318)

herbarium of T. M.

 

Guatemala

Quezaltenango

 

6.6 km S of Quezaltenango to San Marcos road, on road to Colomba, 14 49.9' S, 91 37.8' W

2,680

side of road, sandy soil of slope by edge of corn field

27 Sept 1995

Spooner et al. 7035 (AGUAT), grown as Mione 320.

Flower shown in figure 6 of this page.

Guatemala

Chimaltenango

 

on N-facing slope of Vocán Acatenango, about one-hour walk above Soledad, 14 31.6 S, 91 52.7 W

2,840

in clearing in moist valley

13 Oct 1995

Spooner et al. 7052 (AGUAT), grown as Mione 324.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

San Marcos

 

14 55 57 N,
91 42 35.7 W

2,714

corn and trees

22 Aug 1012

E. Pöll, grown as Mione 838

 

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

 

 

grown as Mione 842

 

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

 

 

grown as Mione 844

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Honduras

Olancho

 

Agalta National Park, Trail between La Chorrera campsite and La Picucha summit

1,100- 2,300

on gravel bars

30 May 1992

W. G. D'Arcy 18063 (MO) grown for study in Connecticut as Mione 580

Fruit shown in figure 18 of this page.

Honduras

Copan

 

3 km ENE Copán Ruins

no data

no data

6 Sep 1989

D. Lentz 1703 (NY)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicaragua

Madriz

 

Cerro Quisuca,
ca 13 30' N, 86 31' W

1100 - 1250

summit and upper slopes

 

W. D. Stevens & A. Grijalva 16041 (MO)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costa Rica

Cartago

 

17 km S. E. of Tapantí

1700

stream side in primary forest

27 April 1969

R. W. Lent 1641 (NY)

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mione & Yacher 687

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mione & Yacher 687

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mione & Yacher 693

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mione & W. Haber 698

 

Costa Rica province of San Jose   University of Costa Rica, San Pedro, Quebrada Los Negritos 1201 shady, moist, rich ground, bank of quebrada Los Negritos 14 Aug 1961 G. B. Rossbach 3746 (GH)  
Costa Rica Heredia   Vara Blanca de Sarapiquí, north slope of Central Cordillera 1500-1750 bank of forest stream July-Sep 1937 A. F. Skutch 3/88  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Panama

Bocas del Toro

 

northern slopes of Cerro Horqueta

1829 - 2134

Robalo Trail

5 - 7 Aug 1947

P. H. Allen 4916 (MO)

"6 feet"

Panama

Chiriquí

 

Cerro Horqueta

1525 - 1830

Cerro Horqueta

Sep 1967

J. D. Dwyer 6961A (MO)

 

Panama

Chiriquí

 

west of Las Nubes, about 5 km NW of Cerro Punta and towards Cerro Picacho

2000 - 2100

recently opened ravine

6 Jan 1975

R. L. Wilbur & J. L. Luteyn 19349 (DUKE)

"shrublet 6 dm tall"

Panama

Chiriquí

 

just below last climb in Alto Respinga

2700

 

27 Sep 1978

W. G. D'Arcy 12142 (MO)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colombia

Santander

 

between Piedecuesta and las Vegas

2000 - 2500

wet bank

19 - 24 Dec 1926

E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 15486 (NY)

 

Colombia

Cauca

El Tambo

 

1700

 

25 June 1938

K. von Sneidern 1491 (NY)

 

 Colombia

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, southeastern slopes

Hoya del Río Donachuí, below the village Donachuí

1350 - 1230

near the river

24 Sept 1959

J. Cuatrecasas & R. Romero Castaneda 24400 (US)

fls are face down on the US specimen, leaving some possibility of this actually being J. repandidentata

 Colombia 

Antioquia

Municipio Jardín

carretera Jardín - Riosucio (Caldas), km 10 - 15, 5 30' N, 75 48' W

2750-2900

no data

26 Sep 1990

F. J. Roldán 1443 (MO)

 

Colombia 

Putumayo

 

Valley of Sibundoy, 5 km S Sibundoy

2200

"wild, protected when spontaneous in corn field"

17 Jan 1963

M. L. Bristol 475 (GH, US)

 

Colombia 

Putumayo

 

Valley of Sibundoy, 4 km S Sibundoy

2200

"Indian garden, protected; very infreq."

7 July 1963

M. L. Bristol 1191 (GH)

 

Colombia 

Putumayo

 

Valley of Sibundoy, 1.5 km W Sibundoy

2200

"Indian garden, very infreq."

22 Aug 1963

M. L. Bristol 1328 (GH)

 

Colombia 

Putumayo

 

Valley of Sibundoy. Sibundoy

2225 - 2300

no data

29 May 1946

R. E. Schultes & M. Villarreal 7615 (GH, US)

 

Colombia 

Putumayo

 

Valley of Sibundoy. Sibundoy

2225 - 2300

no data

29 May 1946

R. E. Schultes & M. Villarreal 7626 (US)

 

               
Ecuador Zamora Chinchipe Cantón Valladolid Forest just outside El Porvenir del Carmen, E of Valladoid 1750 forest, only one plant seen 1 April 2005 L. Bohs et al. 3385 (UT)

Country

primary political

secondary political

locality

elevation m

habitat

date

collector

 

Figure 8, above. Root of Jaltomata procumbens. This is one summer's growth: seeds germinated at the end of May 2010, and so this represents about five months of growth (Mione 590, photo by Thomas Mione, 2010).

Figure 9. Anthers and distal portion of filaments of Jaltomata procumbens; ventral view (view from the stigma) on left; dorsal view on right; vertically oriented rulers show mm on left and right; Mione & Bye 599; photo by Thomas Mione 2012; flower preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo.

 

Figure 10. Anther size, corolla size, the extent of corolla spots (dark green) on the corolla vary among collections of Jaltomata procumbens. Flowers shown in pistillate phase. The stigma is darker green than the style. Units along top are mm. Collections Mione 569, 587 and 599 were grown for study in a common garden, summer 2012, photo by Thomas Mione. Letters "E" and "F" refer to the individual plant from which the flower was removed.

Figure 11. Calyx size, corolla size, Jaltomata procumbens. The smallest units are mm. Collections Mione 569, 587 and 599 were grown for study in a common garden, summer 2012, photo by Thomas Mione. Letters "E" and "F" refer to the individual plant from which the flower was removed.

 

Figure 12. Pubescent leaf of Jaltomata procumbens. Smallest units are mm, photo by Thomas Mione, Mione 569

Figure 13. Glabrous leaf of Jaltomata procumbens. Smallest units are mm, photo by Thomas Mione, Mione & Bye 599

Figure 14. Jaltomata procumbens. The back of a flower to show the calyx. Sepals are reflexed away from corolla, in contrast with the photo at the right of a different accession. The peduncle is nearly vertical under ruler. Smallest units are mm, photo by Thomas Mione, July 2012, Mione 569.

Figure 15. Side view of flower to show calyx; sepals in contact with corolla, of Jaltomata procumbens. Anthers have all dehsiced. Stigma and style are nearly comletely hidden by one of the stamens. Smallest units are mm. Photo by Thomas Mione, July 2012, Mione 599.

 


Table 11. Seed Germination: After planting, number of days until I saw above-ground evidence of germination
(prior to being sown, seeds were stored in a refrigerator). GA was not used.

accession

number of days

year planted

was a warming mat used underneath?

320

6

2012

yes

321

6

2012

yes

401

6

2003

no data

401

11 to 12 days; germination was estimated to be near 100%.

(after storage from 1996 until planted in 2004)

no data

456

6

2012

yes

506

11

2012

yes

569

6

2012

yes

580

6

2012

yes

586

8

2012

yes

587

6

2012

yes

599

9

2012

yes

602

19; stored for many years prior to planting

2016

yes

693

7

2012

yes

Spooner 7126

7

2012

yes

Spooner 7132

11

2012

yes

More data could be added to the above table, available in Thomas Mione's "Germination" 3-ring binder.
Saldívar-Iglesias et al. (2010) also studied seed germination of J. procumbens.

Figure 16. The corolla is smaller during the first day the flower is open, while filaments remain short and anthers are undehisced. The corolla expands when the filaments elongate on day 2 of the open flower's life. Corolla radius was measured from the androecium to the tip of the corolla lobe, gently flatening the corolla to the ruler. In each column there are measurements (for one accession) from plants grown in the greenhouse and outdoors. Each column is the mean of six to 22 measurements by Thomas Mione during the summer of 2012.


 

 

Table 12.  The corolla is 10-pointed or 5-pointed, depending on the accession. Flowers of some accessions have a pleat (3-dimensional folding) in the location of the lobule.  To distinguish between a lobule and a pleat one must gently pull two consecutive lobes away from each other.  If, after pulling lobes away from each other, there is still a lobule, the accession is scored as having a lobules.

accession

pistillate phase: observation made while
flower was in pistillate phase

hermaphroditic phase: observation made while
flower was in hermaphroditic phase

 

where and when observation was made

318

 5-lobes, 0 lobules

5-lobes, 0 lobules

 

CCSU ground-level greenh, Feb, Mar 2016

320

early in the pistillate phase the open cor is 5-lobed but later in the pistilate phase (while anthers continue to be undehisced but filaments have started elongating) the open cor is 10-lobed 

10, lobes and lobules alternating

 

CCSU ground-level greenh, Feb, Mar, Oct 2016

321

10, lobes and lobules alternating

10, lobes and lobules alternating

 

Home garden, 1996 and 2002; CCSU ground-level greenhouse, Mar 2016

324

10, lobes and lobules alternating

 

grown for study in CT

506

10, lobes and lobules alternating

10, lobes and lobules alternating

 

CCSU greenhouse, Nov 2015, March 2016

580

5-lobes, 0 lobules

5-lobes, 0 lobules
In 2010 I did not record the sample size, and did not record the flower’s phase (pistillate vs. hermaphroditic)

 

CCSU, May 2010; CCSU ground-level greenh, Mar 2016

587

10, lobes and lobules alternating

10, lobes and lobules alternating

 

CCSU ground-level greenh, Apr & June 2016

599

5-lobes, 0 lobules

5-lobes, 0 lobules

 

CCSU both greenhouses,
Mar 2016

 

Table 13. Trichomes of the adaxial face (front) of the corolla, the face of the corolla that pollinators normally encounter.

accession

Condition 1: Densely pilosulose, all  finger hairs, each and every hair having a wet (not viscous) droplet at its tip.

Condition 2:  Densely pilosulose, all finger hairs, far fewer than half of the hairs have a wet (not viscous) droplet at tip. 

If one observes with a dissecting microscope, and touches the droplet that is at the terminus of each hair, the droplet disappears.  In other words the incredibly small drop at the terminus of each hair is watery, not viscous.

Where plant was grown

 

320

 

2

 

True

Ground-level CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

506

 

1

 

True

Rooftop CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

593

 

2

 

True

Ground-level CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

599

 

1

 

True

Ground-level CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

321

 

1

 

True

Ground-level CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

580

 

1

 

True

Ground-level CCSU greenhouse, March 2016

 

above, fruits that did not turn black/purple, remaining green.  Mione 580. Smallest units on calyx are mm. Grown at UConn Storrs 2012. Photo by T. M.

Figure 19. Above. Jaltomata procumbens stem cross section. Epidermis (lower left) is purple-blue. Collenchyma, higher up on this screen, is inside of epidermis. Parenchyma, higher yet on this screen, is inside of collenchyma. Phloem (purple) is inside of parenchyma. Xylem (highest on screen) is blue: the large circles through which light easily passes are vessels. Cells of secondary growth (xylem and phloem) are radially lined up. Hand section by Sarah Saunders; photo by T. Mione, Fall 2009, Mione 456.

Figure 20. Above. Seeds of Jaltomata procumbens. Photo and scale bar by Clarissa Cagnato, Mione 401.

 

Figure 21. Nearly all flowers on the plant Mione 838 have stamens that angle out, away from the style/stigma during the hermaphroditic phase, as shown above. Note the nectar drops where the stamens meet the corolla. Photo by CCSU student Jabeen Nuzhat working with T. M.

Figure. 22. The orientation of the stamens places the dehisced anthers in contact with the stigma. Interestingly, the above flower was seen on the same plant at the same time as the flower on the left. Note the nectar drops where the stamens meet the corolla. Photo by CCSU student Jabeen Nuzhat working with T. M., Mione 838.

 

This comment goes with the above pair of figures. I see the same for Mione 844: Flowers that have elongated their stamens (hermaphroditic phase flowers) nearly all angle their stamens out except (9 Oct 2014, 2:00 pm) one flower angles its stamens in as seen in figure 22.

 

 

Seedling Hairs, By Accession number

Hypocotyl

Cotyledons

First Foliage Leaves


318


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


320


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Sparsely pubescent


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


321


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


324


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


506


Glabrous


Glabrous

 


Very nearly glabrous


580


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


593


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


Glabrous


No data


599


Pubescent to sparsely pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Only the margin is pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped, otherwise glabrous

602

Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped, but no fluid at tip

The blade glabrous; the petiole the same as the hypocotyl

Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


837


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


Glabrous


Nearly glabrous but short hairs along margin


838


Pubescent, at least some of the hairs gland-tipped


Glabrous


Glabrous except for a few very short margin hairs


844


Pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped


Glabrous except for short margin hairs


Sparsely pubescent, the hairs not gland-tipped

 

 

If anyone in the future recognizes Jaltomata laxa as a species s/he may want to see the following:

Saracha laxa Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser 2, 3: 447. 1849.
Type: Mexico. Oaxaca, Galeotti 1169 Holotype: K!
Isotype: W, photo of W specimen, F neg. 33137, F!, GH!, WIS!
Isotype: BM ("Hooker's herbarium") according to Miers l.c. 

Saracha diffusa Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser 2, 3: 451. 1849. 
Not Saracha diffusa Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, 3: 447. 1849. 
Saracha miersii Dunal and A. DeCand., D. C. Prodr. 13(1): 684. 1852. 
C. V. Morton (unpublished notes) independently established the same synonymy. 
Nee (1986) did not recognize this as a distinct species: he placed Saracha laxa Miers and S. miersii Dunal and A. DeCand. in synonymy with J. procumbens (Cav.) J. L. Gentry.

Mione recognized this ecotype as a distinct species in his dissertation but has not recognized this as a distinct species since, and over the decades after his dissertation annotated the specimens listed below as J. procumbens.

The specimens that at times have been recognized as a distinct species are probably merely be an ecotype of J. procumbens. On the type specimen of Saracha laxa (a Jaltomata) green maculae of the corolla face extend more than half way to tip of corolla lobe, and peduncles are three times longer than pedicels.

David Spooner's specimen 958a has both long peduncles and the corolla maculae extend out to the tip of the corolla lobe, and so may represent a re-collection from near the type locality (no one knows where exactly Galeotti 1169 was collected). Even though I have not recognized J. laxa as a distinct species I am not sure that it should not be treated as a species distinct from J. procumbens, and more field work is needed in Oaxaca to see if there is a cline or if J. procumbens and "J. laxa" are distinct entities.

Distribution and Habitat: The type of Saracha laxa (a Jaltomata) is from Oaxaca, Mexico, woods, 6 - 8000 feet of elevation, according to Kew's type specimen (altitude not mentioned in protologue).

 

 

Country

state

Locality

altitude

habitat

date

collector

herbarium

data entry

Mexico

Oaxaca

TYPE SPECIMEN if J. laxa is recognized as a species.
There is no locality stated in protologue nor on type specimens.

1829 - 2438 m

woods

Nov - Apr 1840

Galeotti 1169

K!

Aug 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

Oaxaca

on rt 175 Oaxaca to Puerto Angel Rd., 4 km N of N end (by church) of Suchiltepec, 16 07' N, 96 29' W

2750 m

 

6 Oct 1998

D. M. Spooner et al. 958a

herbarium of T. M.

Aug 2007

Mexico

Oaxaca

SE slopes of Cerro San Felipe along hwy 175 to Ixtlán de Juárez, 1.3 km below (S of) rd. summit at La Cumbre

2620 m

Pine-Oak forest, shrubby secondary growth along forest path

9 Jul 1978

T. S. Cochrane et al. 8520

BH, F, MO, WIS

Aug 2007

Listed as J. laxa in Mione's dissertation but not yet added to above table:

dist. de Ixtlán, mpio. de Santiago Laxopa, S. Laxopa, 2000 m, 6 Sep 1987, N. Maldonado V. 179 (MO).

Cerro San Felipe. C. Conzatti 2298 (F)

dist. Ixtlán, 5 km sobre la brecha La cumbe - Corral de piedra, 2950 m, 31 Jul 1985, A. García M. et al. 1761 (MO, NY)

vicinity of Cerro San Felipe, 9,500-11,000', E. W. Nelson 1060 (GH, US) [listed as J. laxa by C. V. Morton, unpublished notes]

19 km NE of Hwy 190 on road to Guelatao (Hwy 175), 2,480 m, 12 Oct 1983, W. R. Anderson 13073 (NY)

along Hwy 175 between Pochutla and Oaxaca, 0.5 km by road N of San José del Pacifico, 34 km by road S of Miahuatlan, 2,470 m, 24 Jun 1986, G. Diggs et al. 3956 (NY)

 

Literature Cited