Jaltomata propinqua (Miers) Mione & M. Nee
Peru, Departments Lima & Ancash
revised 6 Oct 2017
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Link to Jaltomata homepage
Link to the Jaltomata of northern Peru
Link to Jaltomata of Department of Lima
Link to the Jaltomata Ancash, Peru
Link to local names
Link to the Jaltomata species having edible fruits
Figure 1, above. Flower (note staggered anther dehiscence), leaves and branch of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac"
Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 2, below. Fruits of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 868

 

 

Character Description of J. propinqua Figures on this page, or comments
Habit & Height
suffrutescent to small shrub, to 1.2 m  
Branches, young
pilose, the hairs long, soft, finger-like, and gland-tipped 1
older
cylindrical  
Leaves, size
single or paired, to 9.5 cm long by 5.5 cm wide but usually somewhat smaller 1
shape lanceolate with the apex acute, to ovate with the apex obtuse, entire to sinuate-crenate 1
hairs pilose, the hairs long, soft, finger-like, sometimes gland-tipped 1
petiole   1
Inflorescence
4 - 7 (-10) flowered, rarely branched  
peduncle
   
pedicel
  2, 3, 4
Calyx at flowering
  3, 4
at fruit maturity    
Corolla color
center dark violet to blue, paler peripherally 1
 green spots no (grown from seeds from Dept Lima)
yes, 5 pairs (Figure 18 taken in Department Ancash)
observations made through dissecting microscope, Mione et al. 868, fall 2017
purple ring no  
purple in base of corolla yes  
shape and size
short tube at base 3 - 4 mm long always present but not evident on some pressed flowers, the limb reflexed 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
lobes/lobules
10, the lobes and lobules alternate 1
hairs
   
no observations made with a dissecting microscope
on Mione et al. 868, conformed Oct 2017
Stamen length
8 - 13 mm 1, 2
filaments purple; densely villous proximally with uniseriate finger hairs, glabrous distally 1
anther color blue to purple 1
anther size 1.34 - 1.92 mm long (pressed specimens) 1, 2, 4, 5
anther mucronate/mucronulate no (observations were made with a dissecting microscope) 2, 4, 5
anthers of a flower with temporally staggered dehiscence? Yes Figure 1
and based on study of preserved flowers Mione et al. 621
pollen grain size mean 30.7 um, range 27.5 - 35 um Mione et al. 621, cotton blue in lactophenol, anthers had been stored in 70% prior to measurements by Melissa R. Luna, n = 50 grains
Stigma
capitate, somewhat bilobed, nearly 1 mm across 6, 3, 1
Style
twice as long as stamens 1, 3, 5
Ovary
   
Nectar
clear nectar drawn into microcapillary tube and then observations made with a dissecting microscope
on Mione et al. 868, confirmed Oct 2017
Herkogamy Yes 1
Protogyny probably  
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange Figures 2, 6
Seeds per fruit
87 seeds in a fruit 6 X 9 mm
fruit collected in wild (Mione 868)
Seed Size
measure these!  
Character Description of Jaltomata propinqua Figures on this web page

 

Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA
plant from seed did not flower for months but a cutting of it did flower after several months  
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
   
Flowers Closing For The Night?
   
Self-Compatible?
   
Seed Germination
Seeds with partial seedcoat removal immediately prior were treated with 300 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) overnight from 4 to 5 November 2016, and were planted on the surface of potting mix on 5 November.  A heat mat warmed the cups 24/7. Seeds showed their first above-ground signs of germination on 18 November 2016.   
Pollen quantity per flower 90,000 (n = 1 flower) Mione et al. 621, count by Emmett P. Varricchio, 2012, flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
Ovules per ovary
104 (n = 1 flower) Mione et al. 621, count by Thomas Mione, 2012, flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
Ratio of pollen to ovules
865 (n = 1 flower) Mione et al. 621, flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
Chromosome number
no data  
Character Jaltomata propinqua  

 

 

Figure 3, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, Photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 868.

Figure 4, below. Leaves and branch of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

Figure 5, above. Side-view of flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 6, below. Fruit of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

 

 

Jaltomata propinqua,
Peru, Department Lima: Geographic Distribution, Altitude, and Months in Flower

Province Locality
elev- ation m
habitat date collector
Canta

TYPE LOCALITY:
"Cuesto de Purruchucho"
See Arturo Granda's comments below.

no data
  Mathews 774 (Holotype: K!; Isotype: W, photo of W sheet, F neg. 33136 at GH! & WIS!)
Huaral NW side of road, 11.4 km NE of Acos, on road to Acaraos, ca. 50 km NE of the small bridge crossing over the road of Rio Chancay, 76.7 W, 11.3 S
2075
among rocks by roadside 10 Apr 1999 D. M. Spooner et al. 7378a
Canta Arahuay
3000
a orillas del rio 11 Jun 1972 G. Vilcapoma S. 55 (US)
Canta Arahuay
2600
ludera rocosa 4 Apr 1975 C. Ochoa & G. Vilcapoma 279 (MO)
Canta cuesta a Puruchuco
2500 - 2600
ladera subxerófítica 2 Apr 1994 G. Vilcapoma S. 3034
Canta at Huaytanca, ca. 5 km walk NE of town of Canta on the path to Antura, 76.7 W, 11.6 S
2775
among shrubs by path 8 Apr 1999 D. M. Spooner et al 7371a
Huarochirí Surco
2000
shore of a rivulet 24 May 1940 E. Asplund 11061 (US)
Huarochirí near Lima-Oroya highway at km 81 E of Lima
2250
dry open hillside, loose gravel 15-22 Mar 1942 T. H. Goodspeed & R. D. Metcalf 30242 (US)
Huarochirí an der Lima -- Oroya Bahn, zwischen Matucana und Tambo de viso.
Type of var. parviflorus
2370 - 2650
no data
Dec Weberbauer 109 (G!)
Huarochirí Surco
2034
no data
Feb 1948 J. Soukup 3731 (F US)
Huarochirí Quebrada San Juan, entre Surco y Matucana
2300
pedregoso, falda cerro
13 Feb 1949 R. Ferreyra 5422 (US)
Huarochirí Quebrada Ayas o San Juan, Entre Surco y Matucana
2300
pedregoso 13 Feb 1949 R. Ferreyra 5417 (US)
Huarochirí Quebrada San Juan, Entre Surco y Matucana
2200-
2300
pedregoso, falda de cerro 14 Mar 1949 R. Ferreyra 5429 (US)
Huarochirí District of Matucana, km 83 Carretera Central, right side
2591-2896
among rocks or in crevices of stone walls 17 Apr 1955 S.G.E. Saunders 303 (GH)
Huarochirí Santa Eulalia Valley, Río Chira, at Pariagancha
2600
steep slopes 7 Nov 1964 P. C. Hutchison & C. Saravia 7107 (K MO NY)
Huarochirí Cerca de Pachacosa
3800
no data
20 Mar 1974 C. Ochoa 7425 (F US)
Huarochirí Distrito Santiago de Tuna. Frente al Monte Zárate, al norte de Lucmani
3200
no data
17 Mar 1983 C. Ochoa & A. Salas 15103 (US)
Huarochirí km 82 carretera Lima-Huancayo, pasando de Matucana hacia Ticlio
2600
no data
3 May 1983 C. Ochoa & A. Salas 15207 (F NY WIS)
Huarochirí Camino de Huaquicha a Palacala
2600
ladera arcillo-pedregosa con vegetación estacional 27 Apr 1996 A. Granda P. & J. Alegría 1834
Huarochirí between km 82 & 83 highway Lima Oroya
2500
roadside 16 Jan 1998 T. Mione, S. Leiva G.
& L. Yacher 621
Huarochirí between km 82 & 83 highway Lima Oroya,
S 11 48' 20.7", W 76 20' 35.5"
2931
roadside 18 May 2016 T. Mione, S. Leiva G.
& L. Yacher 868
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 6044


Jaltomata propinqua,
Peru, Department Ancash: Geographic Distribution, Altitude, and Months in Flower
Province Locality elevation habitat date collectors
Huaylas Distrito Pamparomas, Road Karka to Pamparomas, S 09 03 03, W 77 58 30"
2850
mixed vegetation, fields, rock-outcrops and hedges/fores remnants over sandstone
5 May 2000
M. Weigend 2000/629 (M)
Huaylas
S 09 05.254
W 77 58.911
2717 m
roadside
17 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 857
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5883
(HAO; CORD, F, HAO, HUT, MO)

           
Aija
a 7 km walk E of the town of Aija
S 9.8
W 77.6
2945 m
rocky slope, with grasses
1 April 1999

D. M. Spooner et al. 7352B (MOL)

Aija
Road from Aija to Huarmey
S 9 47' 22"
W 77 36' 13.5"
3456 m
steep roadside bank
14 June 2005

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 727
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 3366
(HAO; CORD, F, HAO, HUT, MO)

Aija
Road from Aija to Huarmey
S 9 47' 39.3"
W 77 33' 54.3"
2843 m
roadside
20 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 864
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5895
(HAO; CORD, F, HAO, HUT, MO)

Aija
Road from Aija to Huarmey
S 9 49' 43.1"
W 77 42' 06.9"
2302 m
roadside
20 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 865
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5897
(HAO; CORD, F, HAO, HUT, MO)

 

Figure 7, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 8, below. Flower and unripe fruit of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

Figure 9, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

Figure 10, below. Flower and unripe fruit of Jaltomata propinqua. Peru, Department Lima, "Río Rímac" Photo by Segundo Leiva G., without collection number.

 

 

Figure 11, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Flower with petals removed to show androecium and gynoecium. The base of the ovary is wider due to the ovarian disk. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 12, above. Note the style length variation: the stigma is exserted well beyond the anthers in the flower at lower right, and the stigma is near anthers in flowers towards the upper left. Units along bottom are mm. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 13, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Stigma (green) at far right edge of photo. Calyx and ovary (after senescence of corolla and androecium) at lower left. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 14, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Flower showing two dehisced anthers and three anthers not yet dehisced. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 15, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Flower. Note stigma exsertion beyond anthers (herkogamy). Units in upper left are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 16, above. Woody stem of Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Units at right are mm. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857

 

 

Figure 17, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Flower in side-view. Note non-simultaneous anther dehiscence. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 18, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Flower with petals, two stamens and gynoecium removed to reveal paired green petal spots (three stamens are oriented toward viewer). Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857
Figure 19, above. Leaf of Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Numbered units are cm. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 857

 

Figure 20, above. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Stigma exserted only a few mm beyond anthers in contrast with other flowers we saw of the same species having longer styles. Petals removed to show the bright-orange ovarian disk. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 864
Figure 21, above. Photo out of focus but included to show white corolla tissue where tube and limb meet, and nonsimultaneous anther dehiscence. Jaltomata propinqua collected in Peru, Department Ancash. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 864
Figure 22, above. The conspicuous shrub centrally located is Jaltomata propinqua collected  in Peru, Department Ancash. Note the metal ruler (16.5 cm long) nearly horizontal below the plant of interest. The same plant is shown in the next photo. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Mione et al. 864
Figure 23, above. Woody stems of Jaltomata propinqua just above ground-level. Numbered units are cm. This is the base of the stems of the plant shown in the photo immediately above. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Department Ancash, Mione et al. 864
Figure 24, above. Jaltomata propinqua. Leaf blade. Photo by T. Mione in Peru, Department Ancash, Mione et al. 857

    

 

flower of jaltomata propinqua
Figure 25, above. Nonsimultaneous anther dehiscence in flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Anthers of longer stamens have clearly dehisced while anthers of at least one of the shorter stamens have not yet dehsiced (preserved in spirits in Peru as part of Mione et al. 621, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been stored in ethanol for years, units are mm).
Figure 26, above. This flower of Jaltomata propinqua was ready to open for the first time, probably the next day, when placed in spirits in Peru. Its stigma, the highest object in the photo, differs in color from the style (Preseved in spirits in Peru as part of Mione et al. 621, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been stored in ethanol for years. Units are mm)

 

Figure 27, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Corolla partially removed to show three shorter and two longer stamens, with one of the shorter stamens hidden behind the two showing. The same flower, before it was dissected, is shown in figure 3 (preserved in spirits in Peru as part of Mione et al. 621, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been stored in ethanol for years; units are mm).
Figure 28, above. Flower of Jaltomata propinqua. Corolla partially removed to show three shorter and two longer stamens with one of the shorter stamens hidden behind the two showing. The same flower, before it was dissected, is shown in figure 3 (preserved in spirits in Peru as part of Mione et al. 621, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been stored in ethanol for years).

Figure 29.

Jaltomata propinqua

stigma (bilobed) and distal part of style

 

Preserved in spirits in Peru
as part of collection
Mione et al. 621
,

photo by Thomas Mione
after flower had been stored
in ethanol for years

The vertical white lines
at left and right of the stigma
are one mm apart
from each other at center

Figure 30, above. Seeds collected to grow the above plant were collected in Department Lima, Peru.
 


About the type locality

Undoubtedly "Cuesta de Puruchuco" is located in the province of Canta. Puruchuco is a small town at 2500 m which is almost uninhabited at the present, but the "Cuesta de Puruchuco" is properly a subxerophytic steep slope approximately 400 m below the town, in a range of 2100 to 2500 m. A track goes downhill, and along it I collected Jaltomata aspera, which grows together with some other interesting plants including Jaltomata propinqua.
      
Weberbauer (1945: 9-10) mentions that Peruvian Mathews' collections are frequently referred to four places: Chachapoyas (Northern Peru),
Huamantanga, Puruchuco and Obrajilo, the last three situated along the way from Department Lima to Department Cerro de Pasco (they all in the prov. of Canta). Many other collections of Mathews are types of Peruvian entities from "Cuesta de Puruchuco."
   
It is worth mentioning that maybe Mathews regarded the "Cuesta de Puruchuco" not only in the range of 2100 to 2500 m, but also the hills above
Puruchuco town. I mean the track between Huamantanga town and Puruchuco town (in a range of 3200 to 2500 m downhill), or at least a part of this way above and in the vicinities of Puruchuco town.
There is another place named Puruchuco (Department Lima, province Lima): it is a low hill (only 200-250 m) located in the surrounds of the capital city Lima. It is only known for a group of ruins there.

These comments about the type locality were generously provided by Arturo Granda in 1999