Jaltomata quipuscoae Mione & S. Leiva

southern Peru
revised 3 Nov 2017 
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Link to Jaltomata species having red nectar
Link to Jaltomata species of southern Peru
Figure 1. Flowers of Jaltomata quipuscoae. Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 2. Flowers of Jaltomata quipuscoae. Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 3. Flower of Jaltomata quipuscoae. Three anthers dehsiced while the two on the left remain undehisced.
Photo by Victor Quipuscoa
Figure 4. Red nectar. Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 5. Leaf shape variation.
Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 6. Ripe Fruits, Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 7. The habitat at the type locality of this species is being destroyed, trampled by livestock. Note the "6" on the rock: this may be an agricultural plot number. Photo taken while standing in what was the habitat of this species. Mione et al. 797 & 798, photo by Thomas Mione.
Figure 8. Stems at ground level,
photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 9. Victor Quipuscoa (foreground) and Segundo Leiva G. (rear). Photo by Thomas Mione taken while facing habitat of species, Mione et al. 797 & 798.
Figure 10. Standing in remnants of the habitat of this species,
Mione et al. 797 & 798, photo by Thomas Mione
Figure 11. Anther (undehisced) in ventral view and distal portion of filament. On both sides rulers showing mm are oriented vertically, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been preserved in 70% ethanol for years, Jaltomata quipuscoae, Mione et al. 797. Figure 12. Anther (undehisced) in dorsal view, and distal portion of filament. On both sides rulers showing mm are oriented vertically, photo by Thomas Mione after flower had been preserved in 70% ethanol for years, Jaltomata quipuscoae, Mione et al. 797.
Figure 13. Stems, flower bud (left) and flower's shape in side view. Stems, peduncles, pedicels and the back (abaxial face) of the calyx are pubescent with gland-tipped uniseriate finger hairs. Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352.

 

 

Geographic Distribution: Peru, Department Arequipa. Flowering in January & February in the Andes, and in the lomas habitat flowering in October.

Province Locality altitude habitat date collector

Arequipa

TYPE SPECIMEN
Dist. Yarabamba, Alrededores de los Petroglifos de Sogay, S 16 34 0.7" W 71 25 51.2"
2625 m
Ladera arbustiva, rocosa
11 Feb 2006
V. Quipuscoa S. et al. 3352 (HUSA, herbarium of T. Mione).

Arequipa

Dist. Yarabamba, Alrededores de los Petroglifos de Sogay, S 16 33 58.6, W 71 25 40.6
2607 m
Among rocks, habitat being destroyed by spreading cultivation and grazing
7 Jan 2010
T. Mione, S. Leiva G., V. Quipuscoa, L. Yacher 797 (798 seeds only)(HUSA, herbarium of T. Mione)
S. Leiva G. et al. 4654 (HAO).
Caravelí
Km 586 Panamericana Sur, 6 km north of Atiquipa turnoff on Panamerican Highway
300 - 860 m
lomas, westfacing sandy and rocky slopes
3 Oct 1997
M. Weigend & H. Förther 97/701 (M)
Footnote 1.

Footnote for the above table of collections
1) I thank Arturo Granda Paucar for taking the time to bring the details of this specimen to my attention in an email received 15 May 2001. Arturo correctly predicted that this would be a new species, and that it would be closely related to J. aspera.

 

 

Morphology

Character
  Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
herbaceous 0.5 - 0.7 m,
described as an "annual" by Weigend
8, 22, 23
Branches
young
green, with a dense pubescence of gland-tipped finger hairs 2, 3
  older brown-purple (darker than young branches), without lenticels 8
Leaves
blade texture and size
membranous, to 7.5 long X 4.8 cm wide 5, 8, 18, 20
  blade shape including margin ovate to elliptical,
entire to somewhat repand
5
  hairs of upper & lower face and margin pubescence of gland-tipped finger hairs, ciliate 2
  petiole to 2.3 cm long on type specimen,
to 3.5 cm long on Mione et al. 797 collected at the same locality,
pubescence of gland-tipped finger hairs
2, 5, 8
Inflorescence
number of flowers per inflorescence
1, solitary 13
  peduncle green to purple, to 9 mm long with fruit, shorter with flower, appearing to be round in cross section, pubescence of gland-tipped finger hairs 13
  pedicel green to purple, to 10 mm long with fruit, shorter with flower, 5-sided to subterete, pubescence of gland-tipped finger hairs 13
Calyx
when flowering, color & size
green, 14-15 mm from pedicel's distal end to sepal's lobe tip 1, 2, 3, 13, 18
  shape / position

planar (nearly flat) during anthesis

13, 18
  hairs abaxially densely pubescent, especially along veins, the hairs (finger hairs) mostly gland-tipped 2, 3, 13
  at fruit maturity green, broadly infundibular around berry such that berry is hidden in side-view,
25 mm across (from lobe tip to lobe tip)
6, 17
Corolla
color purple, with a ring of green maculae at the base of the corolla 1, 2, 3, 4
  green spots yes Figure 3
  purple ring no  
  purple in base of corolla yes
Flower buds, dissected prior to anthesis, show purple pigmentation that is clearly due to pigment in tissue, not nectar. Also, purple pigmentation in base of flower is revealed when open flowers were dissected with removal of nectar.
 
shape and size
crateriform (bowl-shaped), 3 to 3.3 cm diameter when pressed 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 18
  lobes / lobules 5-lobed 1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 18
  hairs Inner face of corolla puberulent with droplet-tipped unpigmented finger hairs 0.16 to 0. 2 mm long (fresh flower).
Observations on a flower preserved in ethanol at type locality: inner surface puberulent, the hairs 0.06 mm long; outer surface pubescent, most noticably on veins.
Observations on herbarium (type) specimen: only the veins of the outer surface look pubescent.
2, 3, 13, 15, 16
No 1, 2, 3, 4
Corona
Yes 15, 16
Stamen
length including anther
11 mm (measured on a fresh specimen at CCSU)
13 mm (estimated because base of stamen was hidden by corolla on pressed specimen)
1, 2, 3, 4
  length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) not exserted 13
  position of stamens: a) before anthers dehisce, b) after anthers dehisce a & b) from proximal to distal angling away from gynoecium 1, 2 ,3, 4, 14
  base expanded laterally? No 16
  filaments dark purple proximally fading to light purple distally, nearly glabrous (the hairs that are present are visible only with a microscope and are only on the most proximal part of the filament; these are uniseriate finger hairs); the base adpressed to the ovarian disk (figure 16) 1, 2, 3, 4, 14
  anther color yellow prior to dehiscence 3
  anther size 3.4 mm long (dehisced, pressed) 3, 11, 12
  anther mucronate/mucronulate no
(yes in photo of anthers of flowers from greenhouse-grown plants)
11, 12
  insertion of filament into anther Basifixed (not lower ventral face) 11, 12
  anthers of a flower with temporally staggered dehiscence? yes (seen again in Oct 2017) 3
  pollen grain size mean 25.5 um, range 25 - 27.5 um
(n = 30 grains in polar view, anther stored in 70% ethanol then pollen in cotton blue in lactophenol)
24
Gynoecium
Stigma punctiform, green, not bilobed 14, 21
  Style including length straight, 1 cm long, widest at base and gradually narrowing toward apex, pale-green 3, 4
  Disk around ovary ovarian disk girdling the base of the pale-green ovary, the disk occupying 36% of the height of the ovary,
the ovary 3 mm wide X 2.8 mm high
3, 16
Nectar
  Red to purple 1, 2, 3,4
  Herkogamy yes 1, 2
  Protogyny yes  
Fruit & Seeds
color (at maturity) and size

Whitish, 15 - 18 mm across on pressed specimens.
"Frutos blanco cremoso a la madurez" (Quipuscoa et al. 3352).

In a greenhouse: "while developing they are a creamy white color (perhaps very very pale green) and at maturity they are clearly green; fruit gives off a faint sweet smell similar to that of ripe J. calliantha fruit" (J. Kostyun, personal communicatiion).

Fruit produced after crosses between plants of the same accession range from 0.83 -- 2.85 g,
1.2 - 2 cm across, and contain
32 -172 seeds / fruit (J. Kostyun, personal communication).

6, 25, 26
  Seeds brown  
  Seedling pubescent, the hairs (of the hypocotyl, epicotyl, cotyledons and first foliage leaves) erect colorless uniseriate and gland-tipped
observation in Connecticut,
U.S.A., spring 2010, fall 2016

 

Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA
easy to grow in a greenhouse
 
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
 
Flowers Closing For The Night?
No  
Self-Compatible?
yes
Although self-compatible, flowers are not autogamous: pollination by an external vector is required for fruits to be set. 
Seed Germination
Seeds with partial seedcoat removal immediately prior were treated with 300 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) overnight from 4 to 5 November 2016, and were planted on the surface of potting mix on 5 November.  A heat mat warmed the cups 24/7. Seeds showed their first above-ground signs of germination on 10 November 2016.  The duration of storage may affect germination; the seeds I used were sent to me by J. Kostyun from plants she grew from seeds I sent to her years earlier. Seeds planted by T. M. on 12 March 2010 showed their first above-ground signs of germination on 20 April 2010.
J. Kostyun (personal communication, 2014) nicked the seeds with a razor blade and applied a drop of 10mM GA to break dormancy. Seeds did not germinate simultaneously: they started about 1 week after GA treatment and continued to germinate occasionally.
Chromosome number
no data  
Character Jaltomata quipuscoae  

 

 

Pollen production per flower, ovules per ovary, and the Ratio of Pollen to Ovules. In the following table each row represents one flower taken from a greenhouse-grown plant.

Pollen Ovules P / O  
621,250 300 2071  
633,125 314 2016  
503,125 292 1723  
585,833 302 1937 mean
503K - 633K 292-314 1723-2071 range

Pollen counts in the table were done by Demir Camdzic while ovule counts were done by T. M. (year 2017).
Two additional pollen counts are probably less accurate because each count was done with a single anther (multiplied by 5); these were done in 2013 by Emmett P. Varricchio and gave 407,500 - 561,500 grains (n = 2, Mione et al. 797). Ovules per ovary was estimated by doubling the count of one locule. Ovaries were dissected in 70% ethanol so that ovules would float away, a few at a time,when dislodged with a needle. Pollen production was estimated using Anderson and Symon's modification of Lloyd's technique.


Similar Species: The three species of section Modillonia are herbaceous, have solitary flowers, lack corolla lobules, have a corona (figures 15 & 16 of this page), lack radial staminal-corolla thickenings, have a stigma no wider than top of style (stigma punctiform, not capitate), are endemic to Peru and produce copious red/orange nectar.

The species of Jaltomata section Modillonia
  J. aspera J. calliantha J. quipuscoae
corolla color
greenish-yellow or yellow-green
green
purple
ring of green maculae at base of corolla
no
yes
yes
filament color
whitish to pale yellowish
purple
purple
hairs on base of stamen
pubescent
glabrous
nearly glabrous
(the hairs that are present are visible only with a microscope and are only on the most proximal part of the filament; these are uniseriate finger hairs)
vestiture of upper face of mature leaves   nearly glabrous
(photo immediately below)
pubescent
(photo immediately below)
fruit color
orange (Granda 926),
white (Macbride 1962)
very pale-green
whitish
Elevation
Lomas: 150 - 600 m
Andes: 1,600 to 2,550 m
Andes: 1,380 - 2,100
Lomas: 300 - 860 m
Andes: 2,607 to 2,625 m
geography
Peru, Department Lima
Peru, Department La Libertad and Department Ancash
Peru, Department Arequipa
   
 
 

 


Figure 14. Flower of Jaltomata quipuscoae, Mione 797, photo taken 2012, flower preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo.
Figure 15. Flower of J. quipuscoae showing corona at X (see right side); the corona is a bowl of tissue on which nectar pools. Only three Jaltomata species have this structure, photo by Thomas Mione, March 2012, flower preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo.
Figure 16. J. quipuscoae. Corona in focus at X. The corona is the bowl of tissue on which nectar pools characteristic of only three Jaltomata species. Distance between two vertical lines in foreground is one mm, Mione et al. 797; flower preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo.
Figure 17. Fruit crushed to reveal seeds. This fruit was probably not fully ripe given that the seeds are so light in color. Seeds from ripe fruit are brown. Photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352.
Figure 18. Leaves, stems and flowers of Jaltomata quipuscoae,
photo by Victor Quipuscoa, Quipuscoa et al. 3352
Figure 19. Segundo Leiva G. (left) and Victor Quipuscoa S. (right) in the remnants of the habitat of Jaltomata quipuscoae,
Mione et al. 797, photo by Thomas Mione

Figure 20. Leaves, Mione et al. 797, photo by Thomas Mione
Figure 21, above. Anthers and stigma of Jaltomata quipuscoae. Mione 797, flower preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo, photo taken 2012.
Figure 22. Plant of Jaltomata quipuscoae at base of rock with ruler (about 20 cm long) vertical against rock. The same rock and plant are shown in the following photo. Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione 797.
Figure 23. Plant of Jaltomata quipuscoae at base of rock in shadow (ruler about 20 cm long vertically) against rock. The same rock and plant are shown in the previous photo. Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione 797.

Figure 24.

Pollen of Jaltomata quipuscoae

Stained with cotton blue in lactophenol

 

Figure 25. Ripe fruit of Jaltomata quipuscoae split open by hand. Plant grown by and photograph by Jamie Kostyun, Mione 798.

Figure 26, above. Ripe fruit of Jaltomata quipuscoae. Units horizontally across top are mm. Plant grown by and photograph by Jamie Kostyun, Mione et al.798.
 
Number of weeks from manual pollination (in greenhouse) to ripe fruit: 14 September 2017 to 25 October 2017, one day short of 6 weeks but recorded as six weeks because the fruit had not dropped and I very easily could have harvested it the next day.