Jaltomata repandidentata (Dunal) Hunz.

Mexico to Bolivia
revised 28 July 2016
Link to Jaltomata homepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Link to the Jaltomata of Arizona, Mexico and Central America
Link to the Jaltomata of Costa Rica
Link to the Jaltomata of Colombia and Venezuela
Link to the Jaltomata of northern Peru Link to the Jaltomata of southern Peru
Link to the Jaltomata of Peru, Department Cajamarca Link to reported medicinal uses          Link to chromosome counts
flowers of Jaltomata repandidentata
Figure 1. Jaltomata repandidentata, Venezuela, about 400 m, C. E. Benítez de Rojas 6436, grown in Connecticut as Mione 701, photo by T. Mione.
Figure 2. "Skin" of fruit of Jaltomata repandidentata. The ripe fruits are dark purple to the unaided eye, and the purple pigment can be seen here, almost certainly an anthocyanin. Hand-section, wet mount, 400X, no stains were used. Photo by Nicole Henao & Jackie M. Morasutti (alphabetical order) 16 Nov 2012, collection Mione & Coe 555.

Although Jaltomata repandidentata is easy to identify with living and/or alcohol-preserved flowers, no previous researcher recognized this species as growing in Central America. This species was validly published, but writers of Floras of Central America were unaware that many of the specimens of J. repandidentata were misidentified as J. procumbens

As expected based on morphological characters, the collections I identified as J. repandidentata group together in phylogenetic trees. DNA evidence is concordant with my conclusions based on morphology! 

Powell (2007) studied the floral phenology and delayed self-pollination of this species. A mini-study of floral phenology is shown at the bottom of this web page.

 

Character Table 1. Description of Jaltomata repandidentata Figures
Roots expanded (only in north end of range?)
   
Habit & Height
herbaceous, erect to procumbent, to 1.5 m high  
Branches, young
   
older
5-sided  
Leaves, arrangement, size
membranous, upper leaves geminate, lower leaves not paired;
to 14.5 cm long X 8.5 cm wide (556)
 
shape    
hairs    
petiole    
Inflorescence
to 8 flowers per  
peduncle
   
pedicel
   
Calyx at flowering
   
Calyx at fruit maturity    
Corolla, lobes/lobules
   
shape and size
   
color
pale-green (described as white by some collectors, for example Pittier 13755) 1
hairs
   
radial corolla thickenings
   
Stamens, length incl anther
   
filaments curved to sigmoid  
anther    
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen grains per flower See Table 2.  
pollen grain size 27.25 - 30 micrometers, mean 28.5 micrometers, accession 701
(meaured by Michael J. Tanasi);
26.25 - 32.5 micrometers, mean 29.67 micrometers, accession 605
June 2012, 15 grains per accession, plants grown outdoors in Connecticut
Gynoecium
   
Stigma
   
Style
curved  
Ovary
   
Ovules per ovary
See Table 2.  
Nectar
   
Herkogamy    
Protogyny    
Fruit color at maturity, and fruit size
  link to photo of fruits of J. repandidentata
Seeds per fruit    
Seed Size, Shape    
Seed Germination
   
Chromosome number
   
Growability in Connecticut, USA
easy  
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
   
Self-Compatible?
   
Ratio of Pollen to Ovules See Table 2.  

 

 

Table 2. Pollen Quantity and Ovule Quantity Among Collections, Jaltomata repandidentata
Collection Country
Pollen Quantity
Ovules
Ratio of
Pollen to Ovules
Sample Size, Field-collected vs. grown for study in Connecticut, USA
Date Counted,
Counted By
Data Entry
Mione 362 Mexico
88,333
78
1132
1 flower,
from a plant grown for study outdoors
Date of count not recorded,
counted by Thomas Mione
2012
Mione 555 Nicaragua
110,000
130
846
1 flower,
from a plant grown for study

2012, Pollen by Emmett P. Varricchio,
Ovules by Thomas Mione

2012
Mione 701 Venezuela
121,500
139
874
1 flower,
from a plant grown for study
2012, Pollen by Emmett P. Varricchio,
Ovules by Thomas Mione
2012
Mione 565 Bolivia
143,750
117
1229
1 flower,
collected in Bolivia
Date of count not recorded,
counted by Thomas Mione
2012
Mione 565 Bolivia
87,500
93
941
1 flower,
from a plant grown for study
Date of count not recorded,
counted by Thomas Mione
2012

 

Table 3. Evidence of Self-compatibility
Accession
Evidence of Self-compatibility
date
Mione 555 Plants abundantly self-set fruits in a pollinator-free greenhouse 2012 University of Connecticut Greenhouse
Mione 571 Plants abundantly self-set fruits in a pollinator-free greenhouse 2012 University of Connecticut Greenhouse
Mione 605 Plants abundantly self-set fruits in a pollinator-free greenhouse 2012 University of Connecticut Greenhouse

 

 

Link to local names of this species


Distribution and Altitude
Mexico to Bolivia. A common weed in coffee plantations and roadsides.

Range of Altitudes:
Determined from herbarium specimens: 20 m (Oaxaca, Mexico) to 1500 m (Cuzco, Peru), but majority of specimens have been collected between about 400 and 1200 m of elevation.

 



Mexico Specimens, J. repandidentata
arranged roughly north to south, and then chronological within each state

state Mpio. and/or district Locality elevation habitat date collector comments
Sonora field work is needed to verify that this species grows this far north. Filaments and curved style on this specimen look like those of J. repandidentata. San Bernardo & vicinity, Rio Mayo watershed. Curahui
400 - 1000 m
short-tree forest 25 Aug 1959 J. Arguelles 151 (US)  
Nayarit Mun. Tuxpan km 3 - 5 camino de la estacion de Microondas Pe?itas, en el crucero de caminos Tepic-Tuxpan-Mazatlan, 21 55' N, 105 13' W
100 - 250 m
Selva Mediana subcaducifolia en ca?ada selva baja caducifolia en lugar abierto 7 Aug 1990 O. Tellez V. 12802 (F MO NY)  
Jalisco Ojo deminado, 9.3 km past Ajijec, San Juan Cosala and Jocotepec
853 m
no data
23 Jul 1977 T. Davis 766  
Jalisco 2-4 km al E de Cuautitlan, 1 km al SWW de Puente de la Rosa: 19 27' 16" N
600 m
bosque tropical caducifolio 20 Jul 1988 L. Guzman & R. Cuevas 231 (WIS)  
Jalisco Autlan

19 41' 42" N, 104 12' 35" W. Brecha El Chante-La Sidrita.

900 m
bosque tropical subcaducifolio 20 Sep 1988 G. Nieves 489 (WIS) no open flowers on WIS's specimen: identification tentative
Veracruz Mpio. de Mariano Escobedo On road to La Perla N of Orizaba, near El Rancho del Mirador
1220 m
weeds in mixed sugar cane and corn field along road 10 July 1977 R. Bye 7557 (COLO)  
Veracruz grown in Connecticut for study as Mione 571 (seeds generously provided by Ellen Dean) ca. 4 rd mi from cuota road to Veracruz (hwy 150) along old rd 150 betw Orizaba and Fortin, N side of rd
1098 m
in the shade of coffee and overstory trees, lower slopes of hills, moist semi-tropical vegetation 26 Sep 1991 E. Dean 266 (XAL); specimen from plant grown in Connecticut (CONN)  
Guerrero grown in Connecticut for study as Mione 362 (seeds generously provided by Tilton Davis) 57.95 km from Atoyac de Alvarez, on road to Puerto de Gallo
1021 m
no data
9 Aug 1977 T. Davis 822 (MO)  
Puebla Village of Texochico, Mpio. Cuetzalan Leaving Cuetzalan to the east, past Santiago Yahcuitlapan and continuing to Texochico 20° 03' 31" N, 97° 27' 36" W |
434 m
cafetal
10 Mar 2009
J. Amith 1363  
Oaxaca District of Tuxtepec Chiltepec and vicinity
20 m
in woods Jul 1940 - Feb 1941 G. Martínez-Calderón 164 (US)  
Oaxaca
no data
3 km NW of Oaxaca
no data
weeds around town 17 Sep 1978 W. G. D'Arcy 11985 (MO)  
Oaxaca Sta. Maria Chimalapa Paso Agapito del Río Corte, ca. 5 km N de Sta. Maria; lat 16 56' N, Long 94 41' 0
180 m
orilla del rio, area plana de acahual con suelo arenoso café o negro 15 Aug 1984 H. Hernandez G. 339 ( NY)  
Oaxaca Distrito de Ixtlan, Municipio de Santiago Comaltepec Puerto Eligio: 17 45' N,
96 30' W
700 m
bosque mesófilo de montaña 16 Aug 1987 E. López Garcia 0019 (MO)  
Chiapas Mpio. Cintalapa 5 km W of Rizo de Oro
900 m
tropical deciduous forest, slope with Quercus 26 Aug 1974 D. E. Breedlove 36693 (MO)  
Chiapas
no data
ca. 10 miles NE of Escuintla just above Triunfo
300 m
disturbed forest above coffee fincas 21 Aug 1977 T. B. Croat 43855 (MO)  
Chiapas Yajalón Ch'ijtaltik 700   5 July 1983 A. Méndez Ton 6284 (MO)  

Guatemala specimens, Jaltomata repandidentata
Alta Verapaz Tres Aguas no data "cacao" therefore specimen may have been collected in a cacao plantation
25 Mar 1906
F. L. Lewton 270 (F, US)
Alta Verapaz Cubilquitz
350
no data
Aug 1900
H. von Tuerckheim 7752 (US)
Sololá Santa Bárbara
1370
no data
Aug 1891
W. C. Shannon 620 (US)
Quezaltenango Lower S-facing slopes of Volcán Santa María between Santa Maria de Jesus and Calahuaché 1300 - 1500 Finca Pirineos 31 Dec 1939 J. A. Steyermark 35259 (US)

 

El Salvador specimens (chronolgical order), Jaltomata repandidentata
primary political locality elevation habitat date collector (herbarium)
data entered
San Salvador San Salvador no data no data July 1923 S. Calderón 1806 (NY)
Aug 2011

 

Nicaragua specimens (chronolgical order), Jaltomata repandidentata
primary political locality elevation habitat date collector (herbarium)
Matagalpa El Horno, about 24 km from city of Matagalpa. Finca Cafetalera del señor Carlos Duarte.
800
in coffee plantation July 1991 T. Mione & F. Coe 551 (CONN, HNMN, NY)
Granada Volcan Mombacho
450
edges July 1991 T. Mione & F. Coe 555 (CONN, HNMN, NY)
Carazo carretera Sur a Jinotepe, ruta 2, entre Diriamba y Jinotepe, Finca Quacosoma km 42
530
coffee plantation 15 July 1991 T. Mione & F. Coe 556 (CONN, MO)

 

Costa Rica specimens (chronolgical order), Jaltomata repandidentata
primary political locality elevation habitat date collector (herbarium)
data entered
Puntarenas Cordillera de Tilarán, along road from Carretera Interamericana to Monteverde about 700 m 12 July 1995 T. Mione & Lawrence Coe 605 (NY, UT)
Puntarenas From Santa Elena 2-3 km South toward InterAm. Hwy, make a right and then at next place where a road departs to left park at 10 18 25 N, 84 50 07 W, and walk a few moments on left fork to farm. Upper limits of premontane moist, transition from premontane moist to  premontane wet.  According to W.A.H. some tree species that are here are not present just 1 km up the road toward Santa Elena.  Similarly, J. repandidentata is found on the Pacific slope, but not at Monteverde. 1180 m Weed in cafetal 13 Jan. 2000 T. Mione & William A. Haber  696

 


Panama
specimens (chronolgical order), Jaltomata repandidentata
primary political locality elevation habitat date collector (herbarium)
data entered
Veraguas along stream that feeds Laguna La Yeguada, 15 miles north of Calobre
644
along stream 21 July 1970 J. L. Luteyn 1446 (DUKE)
Dec 2011
Coclé near Mata Ahogado behind Hotel Campestre El Valle
610
roadside & fields 27 Sept 1978 B. Hammel 4797 (MO)
Dec 2011
Coclé La Mesa, above El Valle de Anton, ca 2 km W of Cerro Pilon
860-900
distrubed virgin forest, slopes of steep hill 21 July 1976 T. B. Croat 37404 (MO)
Dec 2011

 


Venezuela
specimens (grouped by state), Jaltomata repandidentata
primary political locality elevation
habitat
date collector (herbarium)
Carabobo Guigue, Hacienda La Aduana
450
no data
27 June 1973 C. E. Benitez de Rojas 1570 (GH)
Carabobo Agua Blanca, Guigue, Mun. Carlos Arvelo
400
en vegetación marginal a la quebrada 3 Jun 2003 C. E. Benitez de Rojas et al. 6436 (MY), grown as Mione 701
Distrito Federal Hacienda de Chichiriviche
400
sitios sombrios
Jul 1958 L. Aristeguieta 3240 (MO)
Guárico Flats of Paya River, near Caimanera bridge
Footnote 1
in forest
12 Sept 1927 H. Pittier 12526 (NY)
Mérida 33 km sureste de Sanare, distrito Jiménez: Paso de Angostura: Sitio de represa de Yacambú, en la confluencia de la Quebrada Honda con el Río Yacambú, 9 41' N, 69 31' W
500
no data
28-31 Jul 1973 J. A. Steyermark & V. Carreño Espinoza 107582 (F, MO, NY)
Mérida La Cuesta de El Pepeo, Palmira, distrito Justo Briceño
1000
no data
12 Oct 1973 S. Lopez-Palacios & J. A. Bautista-Bautista 3499 (MO)
Miranda Hills above Los Teques
1500
coffee plantation
7 Sep 1924 H. Pittier 11576 (G, NY, US)
Miranda La Providencia
1000
coffee plantation
27 Sep 1936 H. Pittier 13755 (US)
Tachira carretera vieja San Cristóbal-El Corozo-Río Chiquito-Rubio, en la Hacienda Santa Teresa (cerca del Parque de Petróleo La Alquitrana)
800
en cafetal
26 Jul - 28 Aug 1973 G. S. Bunting & R. Darío Medina 11 (NY)
Yaracuy near Guama, Hacienda Iboa 400 - 500
coffee plantation
13 Sep 1923 H. Pittier 11153 (GH, NY, US)
Footnote 1: elevation estimated by Leon Yacher "Guárico is one of the states of Venezuela. There are several rivers, though the Paya appears to be the main one and apparently is a tributary to the Orinoco (need to check more on this to be certain). The forest that you mentioned may no longer exist making it difficult to pin point the location of the bridge that you named. So, what I did is go to google earth and looked at the elevation of every existing bridge at this time. In all cases the elevation ranged from 580 to 600 ft. above sea level. I would say it is safe to say that the elevation that you are looking for is within this range. I also checked a couple of topographic maps that I have of Venezuela but these were not reliable at all because of their scale."

 

 

Colombia specimens, Jaltomata repandidentata
Department Locality
elevation m
habitat
date
collector (herbarium)
Data Entry
Antioquia vicinity of Medellín
no data
no data
15 April 1927
R. A Toro 155
Aug 2011
Antioquia vicinity of Medellín
no data
no data
20 Aug 1927
R. A Toro 539
Aug 2011
Antioquia vicinity of Medellín
1500
no data
18 May 1928
R. A Toro 1180
Aug 2011
Boyacá northwest of Bogota, region of Mt. Chapon,
1052
edge of forest
12 July 1932
A. E. Lawrance 308
Aug 2011
Santa Marta
762
no data
September 1898-1901
H. H. Smith 1166 (MO, NY, US)
Aug 2010
Santa Marta near Agua Dulce
610 - 762
no data
Aug 1898-1901
H. H. Smith 2721 (G, NY, US)
Aug 2010

 

Ecuador specimens, J. repandidentata
  Locality
elevation m
habitat date collector
Pichincha Centinela, km 12 carretera Patricia Pilar-24 de Mayo, altura de km 47 Santo Domingo-Quevedo
650
En la cima de las Montanas 30 July 1984 C. Dodson et al. 14671 (US)
Pichincha Tinalandia, km 112 on road from Quito to Santo Domingo de los Colorados, 0 20' S, 78 50' W
500 - 1000
roadside 15 Jan 1984 S. Knapp & J. Mallet 6162 (BH, US)
Pichincha Vicinity of El Pariaiso, at base of impressive TRF-covered bluff, km 13 - 15 ESE of Santo Domingo de los Colorados
600
weedy roadsides and sugarcane fields 13 July 1977 H. H. Iltis & M. G. Iltis E-280 (WIS)
 El Oro Zaruma
1100
no data 19 Mar 1955 E. Asplund 15819 (LD, NY)
 Los Rios Hacienda Clementina on Rio Pita
no data
path in dense forest 15 Mar 1939 E. Asplund 5308 (LD)
 Los Rios Rio Palenque Biological Station, km 56 Quevedo - Santo Domingo
150 - 220
along trail 3 Sept 197_ C. H. Dodson & M. McMahon 5065 (US)

 

Peru specimens, Jaltomata repandidentata

Department
Province
Locality
elevation (m)
habitat
date
collector (herbarium)
Amazonas Rodríguez de Mendoza Dist. Vista Alegre. Entre el río Tonchimiyo hasta Salas.
S 6 12' 3.2" - 13' 49.9"
W 77 16 24.4 - 13' 37"
1262 - 1100 bosque montano 24 May 2008 V. Quipuscoa S. et al. 3973 (HUSA)
Amazonas Chachapoyas Dist. Leimebamba. Fundo Villa Aurora-Los Chilchos. S 6 43' 34,56, W 77 36' 34,26
1707
chacras de cultivo abandonadas 31 Aug 2004 V. Quipuscoa S. et al. 3194 (HUSA)
Amazonas Rodríguez de Mendoza Distrito Huambo. Alrededores de Huambo
1715
bosque húmedo montano 20 Sep 2001 V. Quipuscoa S. et al. 2780 (HUSA)
Cajamarca Jaén Ruta Huahuaya - Tabaconas
870
  2 Aug 1994 S. Leiva et al. 1285 (HAO, herbarium of T. Mione)
Cajamarca San Ignacio La Bermeja-Pto.San Francisco, Dist Tabacones
1160
  6 Jan 1998 S. Leiva G. et al 2104
San Martín Rioja Mpio Nva. Cajamarca, along trail above Miraflores
1240
  11 June 1997 N. W. Sawyer & S. Leiva 812 (herbarium of T. Mione)
San Martín Lamas Alonso de Alvarado, al oeste de San Juán de Pacayzapa
800 - 900
  1 May 1973 J. Schunke V. 6144 (NY)
San Martín Lamas Alonso de Alvarado, Camino a Roque, 3 - 4 km de San Juan de Pacaizapa
1000 - 1050
  3 July 1977 J. Schunke V. 9762 (MO)
San Martín Mariscal Cáceres Distrito Tocache Nuevo
400 - 500
  1 Apr 1978 J. Schunke V. 10076 (MO NY)
Huanuco Huanuco Tingo Maria, Valley of Rio Huallaga, Dense growth of shrubs and trees to high water mark; herbaceous vegetation along river banks
probable mistake on label
  11-14 July 1937 C. M. Belshaw 3070 (MO NY US)
Huanuco no data, presumably Huanuco Tingo Maria, vicinty of
no data
  25 Feb 1947 R. Ferreyra 1576 (US)
Junín Tarma valley of Rio Ulcumayo (R. Oxapampa) 4 - 10 km MW of San Ramon
800 - 1100
  31 Nov 1962 H. H. & C. M. Iltis 285 (WIS)
Junín La Merced
700
  29 May - 4 June 1929 E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 23753 (NY US)
Junín La Merced
610
  10-24 Aug 1923 J. F. Macbride 5563 (GH, NY)
Puno Sandia, Distrito Putina-Punco Entre Putina -Punco y Desaguadero,
14 5' 49.2", 69 0' 13.5"
878
  7 Dec 2009 L. Cáceres Martínez et al. 1097 (HUSA)
Cuzco Paucartambo Callanga, en la purma
1500
  22 Feb 1953 Woytkowski 418 (MOL)
Department
Province
Locality
elevation (m)
 
date
collector (herbarium)

Bolivia specimens, Jaltomata repandidetata
Department
Province
Locality
elevation (m)
habitat
date
collector (herbarium)
data entry
Tarija Arce 29.2 km S of Emboroza-Sidras road on road to Bermejo
600
disturbed moist sub-tropical forest with abundant epiphytes 21-23 Apr 1983 J. C. Solomon 9891 (US)
Aug 2010
La Paz Nor Yungas 4.5 km below Yolosa, then 13.7 km W on road up Rio Huarinilla. Bridge at comunidad Huancana, 16.12'S, 67.50'W
1200
moist forest with some disturbance 25 Jan 1983 J. C. Solomon 9396 (US)
Aug 2010
La Paz Nor Yungas 4.5 km below Yolosa, then 13.7 km W on road up Rio Huarinilla. Bridge at comunidad Huancana, 16.12'S, 67.50'W
1200
near houses and coffee plants along river 4 Jan 1992 T. Mione, J. P. Schmit and M. W. Zuazo 565 (CONN, NY)
Aug 2010
trichome

Trichome of seedling of Jaltomata repandidentata. When the seedling was about 1 cm high trichomes are 0.49 to 0.71 mm long on stem (hypocotly) and 0.22 mm long on margin of cotyledon. Trichomes are unbranched and have a bulbous terminal cell that stains densely with neutral red (shown in this photo). The other (non-terminal) cells have conspicuous nuclei, and the terminal cell probably has a nucleus but it was not seen. Photographed March 2009 by T Mione and Peter T. Adams, Mione 605, grown by Amanda L. Brittain in the CCSU greenhouse.

Flower of
Jaltomata repandidentata

on an
herbarium specimen.

 

 

Note on photo to left:

curved style,
bilobed stigma,
sigmoid filaments,
and anthers (from left to right)
1.68, 1.95, 2.13, 2.13 and 1.875 mm long

Tilton Davis 766.

 

 

Number of days, after planting seeds, until I saw above-ground evidence of seed germination
(
prior to planting seeds were stored in a refrigerator)

accession
planted; germinated
Germination on __th day
Stored Since
362 (Mexico) 18 April 06; 6 May 06
18
1989
555 (Nicaragua) 18 April 06; 27 April 06
10
2000
565 (Bolivia) 18 April 06; 13,14 May
25 to 26
1992
566 (Bolivia) 18 April 06; 28 April 06
11
1993
571 (Mexico) 18 April 06; 27 April 06
10
no data
605 (Costa Rica) 18 April 06; 27 April 06
10
1995
701 (Venezuela) 18 April 06; 26 April 06
9
2004

Number of days, after planting seeds, until I saw above-ground evidence of seed germination
(
prior to planting seeds were stored in a refrigerator)
accession
number of days
year planted
was a warming mat used underneath?
555
6
2012
yes
571
8
2012
yes
605
7
2012
yes
701
6
2012
yes

 

 

Floral Phenology of Jaltomata repandidentata

Mione 571, CCSU greenhouse, data collected by Emmett Varricchio, one flower
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2  
summary
4:55 pm
Flower tagged Flower has never opened
10:45 am:
Corolla open, nectar present, anthers undehisced
10:30 am:
2 anthers dehisced and filaments elongated

7:00 pm:
All 5 anthers dehisced
10:45 am:
Corolla and stamens both fell off

one day of protogyny

followed by

one day of hermaphroditism

17 September 2012
18 September 2012
19 September 2012
20 September 2012
 

 

Mione 571, CCSU greenhouse, data collected by Emmett Varricchio, three flowers
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2
summary
9:45 am
Flowers tagged, have never opened
9:15 am:
Corolla open, anthers undehisced, 2 filaments elongated.

5:25 pm:
Corolla closing, anthers remain undehisced
10:30 am:
2 anthers dehisced and filaments elongated

one day of protogyny

followed by

at least one day of hermaphroditism

24 September 2012
25 September 2012
26 September 2012
 

 

Mione 571, CCSU greenhouse, data collected by Emmett Varricchio, one flower
Day 0 Day 1 Day 2
summary
5:00 pm
Flower tagged,
has never opened
10:50 am:
Corolla closed

4:00 pm:
Stigma sticking thru corolla,
corolla remains closed
10:45 am:
2 anthers dehisced and filaments elongated

5:45 pm:
All anthers dehisced; 2 longest stamens have curved toward then away from pistil

one day of protogyny

followed by

at least one day of hermaphroditism

9 October 2012
10 October 2012
11 October 2012
 

 

 

 

Abbreviations for following mini-study of floral phenology:

P
= flower is pistillate (anthers remain undehisced)

P & CC
= pistillate & corolla closed in the afternoon after a day of being open. I could see that the flower was still pistillate because I could look into the flower and see undehisced anthers.

H
= hermaphroditic (anthers have dehisced)

H minus x
= hermaphroditic but with x number of anthers soon to open (still closed)

HNSP
= has not self-pollinated. There is no pollen on the stigma, stigma observed with a 14X hand lens.

SP
= self-pollinated in a windless pollinator-free environment. There is pollen on the stigma, pollen seen with a 14X hand lens.

Corolla Abscission
- the stamens are attached to the corolla, so of course when the corolla drops (abscises) the stamens go with it. When gravity brings the abscised corolla-androecium unit down, this may be when self-pollination takes place.

   
Flower 1
Flower 2
Flower 3
Flower 4
Flower 5
16 October, flowers selected with John Powell afternoon corolla closed and has never been open corolla closed and has never been open corolla closed and has never been open corolla closed and has never been open corolla closed and has never been open
17 October 9:30 am
P
P
P
P
same as above
17 October
1:00 pm
P
P
P
P
same as above
17 October
4:00 pm
P & CC
P & CC
P & CC
P & CC
same as above
18 October 8:30 am H minus 1.
HNSP.
footnote A
H.
HNSP.
footnote B
H minus 1.
HNSP.
H minus 1.
HNSP.
H minus 3.
HNSP.
18 October
10:30 am H.
HNSP.
footnote C
H.
HNSP.
footnote B
H.

HNSP.
H.
HNSP.
footnote D
H.

SP.
18 October
4 pm H.
Corolla partially closed.
HNSP.
Stamens bending across because corolla closing
H.
Corolla partially closed.
HNSP.
Stamens bending across because corolla closing
H.
Corolla partially closed.
HNSP.
Stamens bending across because corolla closing
H.

SP

H.

SP

19 October 8 am Corolla abscission Corolla abscission Corolla abscission Corolla abscission Corolla abscission
footnote E
5 pm Pollen On Stigma? Not Sure.
SP
SP
SP
SP

Summary: Four of the five flowers lasted only two days, one day of protogyny followed by one day of hermaphroditism. Anthers do not dehisce simultaneously. The flower self-pollinates after being pistillate for (on four out of five flowers) at least one full day, but I don't know if my gentle handling of the flowers (to look at the stigma with a hand lens) contributed to self-pollination.

Footnotes:
A - stigma is at same height as the dehisced anthers of the longer stamens, but stigma is orienting to the side away from anthers because of the curvature of the style
B - stigma exserted beyond distal end of anthers by one to two mm.
C - stigma is at the same height as the proximal end of the anthers of the longest stamens
D - flower looks exactly like the one shown in the black & white photo above (third photo down from the top), in terms of its positioning of appendages
E - I made these observations eight hours after the last observations simply because I forgot at 8:00 am to check the stigmas with the hand lens. Nothing visibly changes after corolla abscission.

Materials and Methods:
This mini-study was done by T.M. on accession 605 in the CCSU greenhouse October 2006. A 14X hand lens was used to check for the presence of pollen on stigmas. The greenhouse is heated, and so it felt warm in the greenhouse while I was checking the flowers (cooler temperatures may result in flowers lasting longer).

Discussion:
These observations are in general agreement with those of Polsgrove et al. (1993). In this mini-study flowers self-pollinated, but I don't know if my gentle handling of the flowers (to look at the stigma with a hand lens) caused self-pollination. My other observations of the floral phenology of this species revealed some flowers that lasted three days: one day pistillate followed by two days of hermaphroditism (accessions 362 & 565, 3 flowers, data gathered in April of 1992 in the UConn greenhouse). Davis (1986) reported on the floral phenology of Jaltomata procumbens, and found a similar situation: delayed self-pollination.

Remaining Question:
When exactly does the pollen get on the stigma?

 

 

I thank Tilton Davis IV for seeds of his collection 822 from Guerrero, Mexico (grown as Mione 362); when I first grew this accession in the early 1990s I noted that it looked different from all the J. procumbens accessions I was growing, and then I investigated further and eventually realized that the plant I was growing is a member of a widespread distinct and defendable species.

I thank Ellen Dean for seeds of her 266 (grown as Mione 571) from Mexico. I thank William Haber for showing me this species in Santa Elena, Costa Rica.

I also thank C. E. Benítez de Rojas for sending me seeds of her collection 6436 (grown as Mione 701). Prior to growing Benítez's 6436 I was 99% sure J. repandidentata grows in Venezuela based on my study of herbarium specimens; growing this accession confirmed it.

I thank Lawrence Coe for growing this species in his garden, where I was able to take photos.