Jaltomata salpoensis S. Leiva G. & Mione
northern Peru
revised Oct 2016  
Link to Jaltomata homepage
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA
Uno de la muchas especies descubierto por Segundo Leiva G.
Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Link to list of edible Jaltomata including this one
Link to the Jaltomata of La Libertad, Peru
Link to Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru
Link to table comparing all Jaltomata
species of northern Peru
Figure 1, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Pistillate phase flower at left; hermphroditic phase flower at center; unripe fruit with stellate (darker green) calyx on right. This species, unlike many species of the genus, lacks green petal spots. Photo taken at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866
Figure 3, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Units on ruler in lower, left corner are mm. Unripe fruit behind two flowers. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.
Figure 4, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Flower held upright in forceps. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.

 

Fix: morphology notes from field collection 823 can add to the description to show in the table immediately below.

Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Shrub 20 - 50 cm high  
Branches, young
nearly terete, the upper side puple, the lower green  
older
with lenticels, to 5 mm diam, cylindrical to slightly angular  
Leaves, size
the blade to 6.6 cm long X 3.1 cm wide, lustrous  
shape elliptical to elliptical-lanceolate  
hairs glabrous  
petiole to 2.6 cm  
Inflorescence
2 - 4 flowers  
peduncle
peduncle 5 - 10 mm long, glabrous  
pedicel
purple, glabrous to 9 mm  
Calyx when flowering: color, size
green to purple,
5 - 6.5 mm across (lobe-tip to lobe-tip)
 
shape / position during anthesis planar  
hairs glabrous  
at fruit maturity planar  
Corolla color
white (externally and internally);
purple in base where corolla meets androecium, visible from outside the flower
 
green spots not at type locality green petal spots are absent at type locality but present on/in Mione et al. 853 from Dept. Amazonas (figure 5).
purple ring No. However there is purple pigmentation on the most proximal part of the corolla (the purple ring, where present in other species, is not at the very base of the corolla)  
shape and size
crateriform, 8 - 12 mm diam,
6.5 mm petal length if insert ruler into flower and gently press ruler against petal
 
lobes/lobules
5-lobed (no lobules) at type locality.
lobes alternating with small lobules (totaling 10) at population Mione et al. 823
 
hairs
glabrous except for the margin, the margin ciliate  
no dissecting microscope Aug 2012
Stamen length including anther
3 mm measured in field, but very carefully
filaments the lower 40% pigmented purple
the proximal 35% hairy, the hairs unpigmented
 
anther color pale-yellow  
anther size 1.5 mm measured in field, but very carefully
anther mucronate/mucronulate no  
anthers of a flower open simultaneously? no, when we made two different collections we saw one flower having two anthers dehisced and three undehisced Mione et al. 854, 866
pollen quantity per flower 16,000 (n = 1 flower) Mione et al. 639, count by Emmett P. Varricchio, flower collected in wild (not grown for study)
pollen grain size
diameter (polar view):
mean 33.9 µm, range 30 - 37.5 µm
n = 50 grains, stained in cotton blue in lactophenol, anthers stored in 70% ethanol prior, Mione et al. 639, flower collected in wild
corona no  
Stigma
capitate, green, bilobed,
0.7 mm diam, included (side view)
 
Style
green but lighter green than stigma, 2.5 mm long  
Ovary
green but the ovarian disk orange  
Ovules per ovary
27 (n =1 flower) Mione et al. 639, count by T. M., 2012, flower collected in wild (not grown for study)
Nectar
   
Herkogamy yes (see photos on this page)  
Protogyny yes  
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange  
Seeds per fruit
5, 7, 18
Mione et al. 854
Seed Size
no data
no data
Chromosome number
no data
no data
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Self-Compatible?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
no data
no data
Ratio of Pollen to Ovules 593 (16,000 / 27 ovules, n = 1 flower) Mione et al. 639, 2012, flower collected in wild, not grown for study
Character Above: Description of Jaltomata salpoensis  

 

Figure 6. Jaltomata salpoensis. Two pistillate-phase flowers and one flower inverted to show calyx and corolla's outer (abaxial) face. Unripe fruit with stellate (darker green) calyx. Units on ruler in lower corner are mm. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.

 

Collections of Jaltomata salpoensis including Geographic Distribution: Peru
Department province locality
elevation m
habitat
date
collector
La Libertad Otuzco distrito Salpo, Cerro Quinga (al sur-este de Salpo)

3,750

 

among rocks
1 May 1995
S. Leiva G. 1724 (Holotype: HAO; isotypes: CORD, F, HUT)
La Libertad Otuzco distrito Salpo, 8 04' 05" S,
78 34' 37" W
3,700
on exposed rocks
11 June 1999
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 639 (NY)
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 2334
La Libertad Otuzco distrito Salpo, Cerro Quinga,
8 04' 07.9 S, 78 34' 34.2 W
link to movie showing habitat

3,800-3,938

among rocks
21 May 2015
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866
             
La Libertad Santiago de Chuco about 1.5 to 2 hour walk uphill from Cachicadan, 8 05 03.3 S,
78 08 05.4 W. link to movie showing area near collection
3,513
at base of largest rocks
24 Mar 2013
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 823;
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5416
             
Cajamarca Cajamarca Abra el Gavilan. 07 14.789 S
078 28.147 W
3,253
steep, rocky, open sun
16 May 2015
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 854;
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5867

 

 

Figure 8, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Numbered units on the left side of ruler are cm. Peru, Department La Libertad, province Santiago de Chuco, about 1.5 to 2 hour walk to the top from Cachicadan. Photo by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 823.
Figure 9, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Corolla tissue was ripped away to allow a view of the ovary including the ovarian disk (orange). The base of the filament is pigmented purple but the filament hairs are not pigmented. The three athers showing have dehisced. T. M. removed the background in photoshop but this photo was not otherwise altered. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.
Figure 10, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.
Figure 12, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.
Figure 14, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Note in this image the presence of corolla lobules, not seen on the flowers of the plants at the type locality in the neighboring province in the same Department. Units on the ruler are mm. Peru, Department La Libertad, province Santiago de Chuco, about 1.5 to 2 hour walk to the top from Cachicadan. Photo by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 823.
Figure 15, above. Jaltomata salpoensis. Photo at type locality by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 866.

Figure 16. Jaltomata salpoensis.

Note corolla lobules, not seen in the population at the type locality in the neighboring province in the same Department.

Peru, Department La Libertad, province Santiago de Chuco, about 1.5 to 2 hour walk to the top from Cachicadan.

Photo by Thomas Mione. T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 823.

 

J. salpoensis is similar to J. sanmiguelina

In about 2015 I began to recognize Mione et al. 738 as a distinct species, J. sanmiguelina. I once thought that Mione et al. 738 (Leiva et al. 3641) represented J. salpoensis. However, the molecular (Waxy) data groups collection Mione et al. 738 with J. oppositifolia (98% bootstrap value), not with J. salpoensis 706. Mione et al. 738 is a distinct species, J. sanmiguelina.

J. oppositifolia has corolla lobes and lobules alternating, while the corolla of J. sanmiguelina lacks lobules.

 

Literature Cited