Jaltomata sanchez-vegae S. Leiva & Mione

northern Peru
revised 29 Sep 2017  
Link to Jaltomata homepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Arnaldoa 14(1):
29 - 44. 2007.
Link to the Jaltomata species
of Cajamarca, Peru
Link to the Jaltomata species
of La Libertad, Peru
Link to table of all Jaltomata
species of northern Peru
Link to edible Jaltomata species, including this one
Link to local names of Jaltomata species, including this one
Figure 1, above. Flowers, branches, leaves of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. The anthers on the left are undehsiced while the anthers of the flower on the right have mostly dehisced. Stigma (darker green than the style) is bilobed. The nectar of this species is translucent (observed in the field in Peru), but the base of the corolla is pigmented purple. The purple at the base of the corolla makes this species look like congeneric species that do have red/orange nectar. Mione et al. 742, photo by T. Mione in Peru.
Figure 2, above. Flower of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. Mione et al. 847, Photo by T. Mione in Peru

 

Table 1. Description of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae.
Character Description  
Habit & Height
Shrub to 1.4 m  
Branches, young
4-5 sided, with a covering of gland-tipped finger hairs  
older
terete or slightly angular in cross section, glabrous, to 13.5 mm diam at base  
Leaves, size
alternate or geminate, membranous  
shape ovate to lanceolate  
hairs adaxially with a dense cover of gland-tipped finger hairs, abaxially with a greater density of the same kind of hair  
petiole 9-13 mm, densely covered with gland-tipped finger hairs  
Inflorescence
2 (-4)  
peduncle
to 13 mm with flower, to 18 mm with fruit, surrounded by a covering of gland-tipped finger hairs  
pedicel
surrounded by a covering of gland-tipped finger hairs  
Calyx at flowering
green  
shape / position at flowering nearly rotate, to reflexed  
at fruit maturity Measurements on one calyx: 20 mm diameter, 1 cm pedicel to lobe, 4 mm pedicel to sinus (associated with a fripe fruit 15 X 10.5 mm).  
Corolla color
the base purple, the distal part green  
shape and size
urceolate, the tube 11 - 13 mm  
lobes/lobules
10 total, the lobes and lobules alternating  
hairs
   
Stamen length including anther
to 24 mm (stamen was measured on an intact pressed flower)  
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) 0 mm when anthers have not yet dehisced to
15 mm when anthers have dehisced, stamens are then fully elongated
 
yes  
base expanded laterally? yes  
filaments hairy on only the expanded base (Mione et al. 742)
proximal 18% (Mione et al. 647)
 
anther color yellow  
anther size 2.6 -- 3.2 mm long  
anther mucronate/mucronulate yes (Mione et al. 647, 742)  
insertion of filament into anther on lower ventral face of anther  
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen quantity per flower 78,000 (n = 1 flower, Mione et al. 715)
115,000 (n = 1 flower, Mione et al. 742)
 
pollen grain size    
corona no  
Stigma
bilobed  
Style
17 - 19 mm  
Ovary
   
Ovules per ovary
178 (n = 1 ovary, Mione et al. 715)
224 (n = 1 ovary, Mione et al. 742)
 
Nectar
Transparent in Peru, but can produce orange nectar when plants are grown for study. See the caption of figure 11 for details.
Estimate of Nectar Sugar Concentration
: With a refractometer students and I measured 31% sugar in the nectar pooled from several different flowers all in their hermaphroditic phase. The hand-held refractometer (Eclipse, Bellingham & Stanley) was first calibrated to 0 with distilled water. Nectar was diluted 1:1 with distilled water, so the refractometer reading was doubled to obtain this estimate of 31% sugar (Oct 2004, CCSU greenhouse).
 
Herkogamy at least somtimes yes  
Protogyny Yes. On plants grown (in a pot outdoors, 2003) I noted some flowers having undehisced anthers and others having dehisced anthers.
The pistillate phase lasted one to three days, then the functionally hermaphroditic phase lasted two to six days. Flowers lasted five to seven days. For these statements three flowers were carefully observed daily 11 October to 3 November 2004, by Christopher J. McCue in the CCSU greenhouse.
 
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange, at least occasionally dehiscing at maturity
Size: see Table 2 on this page
 
Seeds per fruit
Fruits Collected in the wild: 60, 37, 52 seeds (Counts by Mione, Mione et al. 647).
Fruits from plants grown in U.S.A.: 50 seeds (berry 15 mm wide X 10.5 mm pole to pole), 80 seeds (berry 10 X13 mm) (Counts by Mione, Mione et al. 647).
177 - 181 (Counts by Segundo Leiva G., protologue).
 
Seed Size
 
Chromosome number
no data
no data
Growability in Connecticut, USA
Easy
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
Self-Compatible?
Yes. A single plant grown during the summer and fall of 2004 produced at least one berry containing seeds. Another plant grown in the CCSU greenhouse (fall to winter 2004) produced an orange berry.
Seed Germination
Ratio of pollen to ovules

438 (78,000 / 178 ovules, Mione et al. 715, n = 1 flower)
513 (115,000 / 224 ovules, Mione et al. 742, n = 1 flower)
flowers collected in Peru
(not grown for study)
Character Description of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae  

Figure 3, above. Anthers of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. The outer (dorsal) face shows on left; the inner (ventral) surface shows on right. Units along bottom are mm. Mione et al. 647, photo by Thomas Mione, plant grown in Connecticut, USA.
Figure 4, above. Flower of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae showing stigma (green) partially hidden by filament of one of the stamens; at least three of the anthers dehisced, and flower bud. Mione et al. 742, photo by Thomas Mione in Peru.
Figure 5. Fruits of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae popped open (dehisced) at maturity. Mature fruits are orange; immature fruit is green. Abaxial face of calyx shows on left. Smallest units above and below are mm. Mione et al. 742, photo by Thomas Mione in Peru.

Table 2. Fruit Size, Jaltomata sanchez-vegae
9 X 12 mm pickled in Peru and then measured a few years later Mione et al. 647
10.5 mm X 15 mm fruit measured fresh from plant grown for study, Dec 2004 Mione et al. 647
10 X 13 mm fruit from CCSU greenhouse, Dec 2004 Mione et al. 647

 

Table 3. Specimens Studied: Peru. Flowering in Nov, Dec, Jan, Mar, Apr, May, June

Department
province
Locality
elevation m
habitat
date
collector
TYPE: Cajamarca Cajamarca cerca a Cumbe Mayo, en los terrenos de propiedad de la Universidad
3300
frecuente en los cercos de piedra, debajo de plantación de Eucaliptus
10 Jan 1986
I. Sánchez Vega 3924 (Holotype: CPUN; Isotype CPUN, F)
Cajamarca Cajamarca cerca a Cumbe Mayo: 07, 11.57 S, 78 32.711 W
3452
in stone wall and among other shrubs in nearly vertical roadside
21 March 2007
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3645 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 742
Cajamarca Cajamarca Cerro Sexcemayo,
al Oeste de Cajamarca
3430
Ladera con arbustos
02 Apr 1991
I. Sánchez Vega 5429 (F)
Cajamarca Cajamarca En el caserío de Huacataz, a 20 km al NE de la Ciudad de Cajamarca
3000
Ladera de arbustos. Suelo volcáncio.
21 Nov 1981
I. Sánchez Vega 2701 (F, NY)
Cajamarca Cajamarca S 07 15.301
W 78 28.391
3060
damp area near stream at roadside
27 Mar 2013
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 832
Amazonas Chachapoyas 06 43.346 S, 77 52.631 W. km 399-400 Balsas to Leimebamba road.
3458
roadside
15 May 2015
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 5863 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 850**
La Libertad Sánchez Carrión near Aricabamba, parked at 07 46.437 S, 77 46.416 and walked up riachuela
3543
in shrubs next to wheat field
10 June 2005
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3343 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 715
La Libertad Sánchez Carrión El Molino (ruta Paday-Sartimbamba)
3000
 
4 Sep 1998
S. Leiva & J. Tarrillo 2232 (HAO)
La Libertad Santiago de Chuco arriba de Mollebamba (ruta Mollebamba-Tulpo)
3080
 
6 Dec 2002
S. Leiva 2677 (HAO)
La Libertad Santiago de Chuco Alrededores de Cachicadán
3050
no data
13 Jun 1999
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 2341 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 647
La Libertad Santiago de Chuco 8 05 32.5 S; 78 09 31.3 W, Cachicadán, walk uphill a few minutes from where the Aguas Termales are exposed (open to air)
3050
partial sun, next to Eucalyptus
24 Mar 2013
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 5413 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 821
La Libertad Bolivar 07 03.086 S, 077 51.729, Above Longotea, carretera Balsas to Bolivar
2985
roadside
14 May 2015
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 5859 (HAO)
T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 847**

** Mione's herbarium specimens were lost, but photos, flowers in alcohol, and DNA available for study.

Figure 6, above. units are mm. Mione et al. 847, photographed in Peru by T. Mione
Figure 7, above. Units along right edge are mm. Mione et al. 847, photo by T. Mione in Peru
gland-tipped hairs Jaltomata sanchez-vegae
Figure 8. Gland-tipped finger hairs of young branch of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. Photo by Mione et al. 647, photo by T. Mione of a plant grown in Connecticut, USA.
Figure 9. Bottom of corolla, J. sanchez-vegae (Mione et al. 832, photo by Thomas Mione in Peru).

Figure 10. The flower shown in figure 22 of this page is the same collection and was photographed in the wild in Peru, while the flower above comes from a greenhouse-grown plant of the same collection. Note the corolla color difference, suggesting that natural light and/or other abiotic factors such as soil ph affect floral color.

Part of the corolla was removed to show the radial thickenings. These thickenings extend radially from the base of each stamen, adnate to the base of the corolla. The ovary is surrounded by the bases of the stamens. Plant grown in Connecticut from seed of collection Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 647. Photo by Thomas Mione

Figure 11, above. Orange nectar was produced only by plants grown for study, not by wild plants. The units along the bottom of this photo are mm.

In Peru I wrote in my field notebook for 647 "nectar clear." Again, when I grew this collection at home (outdoors in a pot, 2003), I wrote "copious clear nectar, base of corolla purple, 22 September 2003." Again on 19 May 2004 this species flowered (in Copernicus Hall on the window sill) and the nectar was clear. And again, in Peru during fieldwork, 15 May 2015, the nectar was described in my field notebook at transparent.

In contrast, in February of 2005 I noted nectar with a slight orange tint in flowers of a plant being cultivated on a windowsill. I placed the corner of a white lab tissue into the nectar, removed the tissue, and indeed the tissue was light orange! Again, in late February 2005 I pulled open three flowers and the pistillate phase flower had clear nectar while the two hermaphroditic-phase flowers had orange nectar (this photo)!

The plant that produced the orange nectar was growing in a pot on a window sill with the flowers touching the cold window, so perhaps the cold may induce orange pigment formation. At the same time, the flowers do not show nearly as much anthocyanin formation in the base of the corolla as in the flower photographed in Peru (Figure 5). To be sure I was looking at orange nectar I moved the nectar to a nonabsorbent white surface, and the nectar remained orange, and two days later when I looked again the nectar had even dried orange.

Photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 647 plant grown in Connecticut, USA.

Figure 12, above. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae growing in rock wall in Cajamarca, Peru (Mione et al. 742, photo by Thomas Mione in Peru).
Figure 13, above. Photo taken near collection Mione et al. 742 of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae, Cajamarca, Peru (photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 14, above. Photo taken near collection Mione et al. 715 of Jaltomata sanchez-vegae, La Libertad, province Sanchez Carrion, Peru (photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 15, above. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae, La Libertad, province Sanchez Carrion, Peru (Mione et al. 715, Photo by Thomas Mione in Peru).
Figure 16, above. Protogyny is evident because anthers are undehisced while flower is open and stigma is likely receptive. Numbered units are cm (photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 647 plant grown in Connecticut, USA. from seeds collected in Peru).
Figure 17, above. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. All anthers have dehisced. Note slight herkogamy (stigma exserted beyond dehisced anthers). Plant grown outdoors in Connecticut, USA. from seeds collected in Peru (Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 647)
Figure 18, above. Unripe fruits. Units along bottom are mm. Mione et al. 847, photo by T. Mione in Peru
Figure 19, above. View from above flower. Mione et al. 847, photo by T. Mione in Peru
Figure 20, above. Variant with short stamens in a population having long stamens (shown in other photos on this page). Mione et al. 847, photo by T. Mione in Peru
Figure 21, above. Older branch. Units at right edge are mm. Mione et al. 847, photo by T. Mione in Peru

Figure 22. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae

Dehisced anthers and stigma
are in close proximity

Smallest units on ruler in
upper left are mm.

Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 647

 

A print was scanned; photo by Thomas Mione in Peru

 

Figure 23. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. Stem cross section. Plant grown in Connecticut, USA. from seeds collected in Peru. Hand sectioning and photo by Dan Brooks, Mione et al. 647.
Figure 24. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. Stem cross section showing pith at right and innermost secondary growth at left. Plant grown in Connecticut, USA. from seeds collected in Peru (Hand sectioning and photo by Dan Brooks, Mione et al. 647).
Figure 25. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae. Stem cross section showing initiation of cork. Plant grown in Connecticut, USA. from seeds collected in Peru. Hand sectioning and photo by Dan Brooks, Mione et al. 647.
Figure 26. Stigma papillae are 45 micrometers long. Jaltomata sanchez-vegae plant grown in Connecticut, USA from seeds collected in Peru. Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 647.

Figure 27. Ventral view of stamen
attached to corolla. The flat surface
of the base of the stamen that
is showing had been
against the ovary.

 

 

Four stamens and much of the corolla
were removed for this view.

 

Units along bottom are mm.

 

Mione et al. 742

 

Photo by T. Mione in Connecticut, USA.

 

Flower was preserved in 70% ethanol prior to photo

Figure 28, above. Mione et al. 850, photo by T. Mione in Peru
Figure 29, above. Bottom of corolla. Corolla was removed and inverted to take this photo. Mione et al. 850, photo by T. Mione in Peru

 

Literature Cited