Jaltomata sinuosa (Miers) Mione

Venezuala, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia

revised Jan 2017  

 

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor
Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University,
Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050

Literature Cited

 

Link to local name(s)

Link to report(s) of fruits being edible

 

Link to the Jaltomata of Ecuador

Link to the Jaltomata of Colombia & Venezuela

 

Link to the Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru

Link to Jaltomata species of northern Peru

 

 

Link to movie showing collection 849 Link to reported medicinal uses

 

Figure 1. Flower of Jaltomata sinuosa in hermaphroditic phase: staminal filaments have elongated and anthers are presenting pollen (Mione, Leiva & Yacher 815, Peru, Department Lambayeque, photo by T. Mione, growing a few meters from J. incahuasina).

 

 

above, Figure 2. Ripe and unripe fruits of Jaltomata sinuosa. Peru, Department Junín.  Mione et al., 878, photo by T. Mione

below, Figure 3. Flower showing nonsimultaneous anther dehiscence: The anthers of the longer stamens have dehisced while the anthers of the shorter stamens remain undehised. Mione et al., 878, photo by T. Mione

 

 

 

Figure 4. Flower in pistillate phase, day 1. During the first day the flower is open anthers have not yet dehisced (they are not presenting pollen) and staminal filaments have not yet elongated. The stigma is closest to viewer.
Photo by T. Mione, T. Mione & McQueen 468, Ecuador.
Figure 5. Flower in hermaphroditic phase, after day 1. Anthers have dehisced and staminal filaments have elongated. Stigma and dehisced anthers are in close proximity.
Photo by T. Mione, T. Mione & McQueen 468, Ecuador.

 

 

 

Pigmentation: The purple of the corolla is very likely an anthocyanin. Corolla cells were observed with brighfield microscopy, and students and I observed that the purple color (where present) appears throughout the cells, indicating that the purple pigment is in the vacuole. Considering these observations, the purple pigment is very likely an anthocyanin. The purple color (where present) of the hairs of the corolla looks the same: the purple pigment appears throughout the cells that have the pigment.

Jaltomata sinuosa is similar to J. sanctae-martae (Bitter) Benítez of Colombia and Venezuela.   Both are villous with gland-tipped finger hairs, and bear rotate corollas.   Jaltomata sinuosa has 3 - 5 flowers per inflorescence, flowers 2.5-3.8 cm in diameter, and orange berries while J. sanctae-martae has up to 10 flowers per inflorescence, flowers to 1.8 cm in diameter, and red berries according to Benítez de Rojas (1980).

Leiva 2345 (Mione et al. 650) differs by having stems round in cross section and smaller anthers; waxy DNA sequences placed Leiva 2345 and J. sinuosa in two different clades.

Distribution and Habitat: Jaltomata sinuosa occurs in disturbed habitats (e.g., roadsides) in the Andes from western Venezuela to Bolivia.

 

Table 1, Morphology.

Character

Description

Figures

Habit & Height

shrub 0.5 to about 1 m high

 

Branches, young

 

 

older

 

 

Leaves, size

 

 

shape

 

 

arrangement and hairs

 

hypocotyl and cotyledons of seedlings are pubescent with unpigmented conspicuously gland-tipped finger hairs
(Oct 2016, Mione et al. 877 & 878)
 

petiole

 

 

Inflorescence

2--4 flowers per inflorescence 

 

peduncle

 

 

pedicel

 

 

Calyx at flowering

 

 

at fruit maturity

 

 

Corolla color

 

 

green spots

yes (at least some collections): 5 pairs of green spots visible both inside and outside the corolla

 

purple ring

yes: immediately distal to the green corolla spots

 

shape and size

rotate when fully open, but with a recessed area large enough to hold the nectar droplets (702); infundibular when partially open.

 

lobes / lobules

alternating and totaling 10
footnote 1

 

hairs

 

 

radial thickenings

no

 

Corona

 

 

Stamen, length including anther

 

 

filaments

filament hairs intensely purple (702)

 

anther color

 

 

anther size

 

 

anther mucronate?

 

 

anthers of a flower open simultaneously?

 

 

pollen grain size

 

 

Gynoecium

 

 

Stigma

 

Fig. 6

Style

 

Fig. 6

Ovary

 

 

Ovules per ovary

see Table 3 of this page

 

Nectar

transparent (Mione et al. 733)

 

Herkogamy

 

 

Protogyny

 

 

Fruit color (at maturity) and size
(
wild plants, not cultivated for study)

orange

9 X 11 mm contained 86 seeds (Mione et al., 877, in Peru)
10 X 14 mm contained 150 seeds
(Mione et al., 878, in Peru)

see table below for complete data on seeds per fruit 

Infructescence

 

 

Seeds per fruit, plants grown for study in CT

Range 64 to 114 seeds, with the highest count and the lowest count from the same accession (543), and a mean of 90. Seeds per fruit is lower in Connecticut presumably because the plants were grown in the absence of pollinators (in the greenhouse).

 

Seed Size (mm)

1.34 - 1.46 long X 1.26 - 1.32 wide X 0.58 - 0.62 thick 

accession 468/469, seeds were field-collected  

 

Table 2.

Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA

Easy to grown. Does well in a greenhouse or a sunny window.

 
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
4 weeks and one day to 5 weeks Pollinated manually on 7 Oct 2016; ripe (orange) fruits (two) harvested on 10 November 2016.
Pollinated manually on 20 Oct 2016; ripe fruits harvested on 25 Nov 2016.
Other developing fruits, not tagged for study, were removed from the plant during this time interval. Mione 702
Flowers Closing For The Night?
yes. "around 7:30 pm without artificial lights,
otherwise after lights turn off"
Jamie Kostyun, personal communication, from observations on Mione 702
Self-Compatible?
Yes: unmanipulated flowers gave numerous fruits in a pollinator-free greenhouse.  
Seed Germination
see table 4, below  
Pollen quantity per flower see table 6, below  
Ovules per ovary
see table 6, below  
Ratio of pollen to ovules
see table 6, below  
Chromosome number
no data  
Character Jaltomata sinuosa  

 

Table 3. Seeds Per Fruit

accession Wild plant, fruit collected in the field. Flower was manually self-pollinated.

Data from a plant grown in a nearly pollinator-free greenhouse in Connecticut.

Corolla of flower did not open
.
Self-pollinated without an external vector.
Data from a plant grown in Connecticut in a nearly pollinator-free greenhouse.
Flower opened normally.
Flower self-pollinated (without an external vector).
Data from a plant grown in Connecticut in a nearly pollinator-free greenhouse.
468 166 105    
469 164, 191     82, 86, 114
534, self-set no data     64, 74, 104
702 no data 2, 3, 33, 74, 95, 98, 114 15, 25, 60, 69, 83 19, 44, 56, 61, 61, 67, 75
877 86, growing in shade      
878 150 growing in sun      

 

Table 4.

Seed Germination
(seeds were stored in the refrigerator, except for the first days after harvest when the seeds were stored at ambient temperature)

Heat Mat Used? Number of days until above-ground signs of germination
Seeds of Nee et al. 51826/Bohs 01-58 (Mione 702) were stored for 2 years and 9 months and then planted on 30 Jan 2004. On 19 Feb 2004 a seedling was first observed. Only two seeds germinated out of 12 to 15 sown. no data 20
Seeds of accession 534 were stored for one year and 5 months and planted on 16 Apr 1992.
A seedling was observed on 30 April 1992.
no data 14
Seeds of Nee et al. 51826/Bohs 01-58 (Mione 702) were planted 24 Oct 2014. The first above-ground sign of germination was observed on 2 Nov 2014; seeds were sown in cups of potting mix. yes 9
seeds of accession 877 were stored from May 2016 until planted 6 Sept 2016. The first above-ground sign of germination was observed on 1 Oct 2016; seeds were sown in cups of potting mix. yes 25
seeds of accession 878 were stored from May 2016 until planted 6 Sept 2016. The first above-ground sign of germination was observed on 24 Sep 2016; seeds were sown in cups of potting mix. yes 18
Seeds of accession 469 were stored for 6 months and then planted on 1 Jun 1990. On 21 Jun 1990 a seedling was observed. no data 20

Footnotes for the above description: 1) The corolla is 10 pointed, the lobes and lobules alternating (Figure 1).
Benítez de Rojas 2010 may not have had access to living material when she described the corolla as 5-lobed, or she may have elected to omit mention of the lobules.

above, Figure 6. Jaltomata sinuosa growing in a vertical rock-earth wall. The top-middle arrow points to the stem rooted in the wall, with a silver ruler approximately 16 cm long resting on the stem. The yellow arrows show the extent of the shrub. Follow this link to a movie in which this plant is shown after I carried it with me for a minute or so. A few flowers can be seen in this photo, to the right and toward the lower left. Photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 849.

 

below, Figure 7. J. sinuosa growing on a steep bank of a Quebrada, illuminated by flash because plant was in shade. Note the single orange berry. Ruler below plant is about 16 cm long. Peru, Department Junín, edge of city Huancayo, Quebrada Ocopilla, May 2016, photo by T. Mione, Mione et al. 877.

 

 

Table 5. How Many Weeks From Seed Germination To Flowering?

Planted 10 December 1990, first flowers open 21 March 1991 (Greenhouse, Mione 534).

Planted 24 October 2014, first above-ground signs of germination 2 Nov 2014, first flower open 1 Feb 2015 (Greenhouse, Mione 702).

Thus, under greenhouse conditions, more than three months but less than four months from planting seeds to flowering.

 

 

How many weeks from pollination to mature (ripe, orange) fruit ?
(all data collected in greenhouses)

Accession Date pollinated (manually) while flower was in pistillate phase Date ripe fruit was harvested Duration Fruits on the same plant, developing from flowers that were not part of a study, were removed.  In other words, other (untagged) developing fruits were removed from the plant during this time, likely leading to this being an underestimate of the duration in nature.
702 31 October 2016 14 Dec 2016 7 weeks and
2 days

No.
Lack of artificial lighting and short daylength likely increased duration relative to bottom two rows in this table.

702 4 Nov 2016 15 Dec 2016 5 weeks and
6 days
No.
Lack of artificial lighting and short daylength likely increased duration relative to bottom two rows in this table.
702 27 October 2016 1 Dec 2016 5 weeks Yes
702 8 Oct 2016 16 Nov 2016 5 weeks and 4 days Yes

 

Figure 8.

 

Sepals were about 2 mm long initially, and about 12 mm long finally.

The other flowers of each tagged inflorescence were removed when measurements began.

Sepal length was measured from the pedicel to the lobe tip.

For sepal length, the plotted values are means of 12 to 4 measurements.

Measurements began on 23 Feb 2015.

 

 

 

 

above, Figure 9. Jaltomata sinuosa. Note flower at left, facing down.  Note the ruler on which numbered units are cm.
Peru, Department Junín. Mione et al. 878, photo by T. Mione

below, Figure 10. J. sinuosa fruits (ripe). Units along bottom are mm.  Peru, Department Huanuco, Mione et al. 869, photo by T. Mione

 

 



Table 6. Pollen Quantity and Ovule Quantity Per Flower

Collection

Country

Pollen Quantity

Ovules

Ratio of Pollen to Ovules

Counted By

Date counted

grown for study
versus
flower preserved during fieldwork in Latin America

468/9 Ecuador 95,000 179 531 both pollen and ovules were counted by T. M., 1992 flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA
468/9 Ecuador 74,583 154 484 both pollen and ovules were counted by T. M., 1992 flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

  468/9

  Ecuador

74,479 

118 

  631

  both pollen and ovules were counted by T. M., 1992

 flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

534

Peru

77,750

pollen by CCSU student Elisabeth dos Santos, 2011

flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

534

Peru

98,750 136 726 both pollen and ovules were counted by T. M. flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

708

Peru

174

87 ovules in one locule, count by T. Mione 2015

flower from wild plant collected in Peru

708

Peru

47,500

208

228

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2015

flower from wild plant collected in Peru

733

Peru

90,000

118

763

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2015

flower from wild plant collected in Peru

848

Peru

80,000

208

385

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2016

flower from wild plant collected in Peru

849

Peru

72,500

156

465

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2015

flower from wild plant collected in Peru

702

Bolivia

127,000

126

1,012

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2016

flower from plant grown in Connecticut, USA

702

Bolivia

145,000

111

1,306

pollen by student Kenneth C. Plourd; ovules by T. Mione 2016

flower from plant grown in greenhouse
in Connecticut, USA

 

Table 7, Geographic Distribution / Specimens Studied.

to be moved to table: Venezuela. Mérida: Vicinity of El Royal, near La Toma, 2440 m, 4 Nov 1978, Luteyn et al . 6181 (MO, NY).

Ecuador specimens, Jaltomata sinuosa

province

Locality

elevation m

habitat

date

collector

herbaria

Pichincha

road Aloag - Santo Domingo, San Ignacio

2000

upper subtropical rainforest

11 Feb 1967

B. Sparre 14328

US

Pichincha

Cerro Pichincha

no data

moist border of a brook

2 Feb 1920

I. Holmgren & O. Heilborn 290

US

Imbabura

Road Otavalo - Selva Alegre, km 45

3200

on landslide in uppermost scrubby montane forest

28 May 1980

Holm-Nielsen & F. Quintana 24079

US

Chimborazo

highway to Pallatanga from just S of Cajabamba, 32.1 km in from Panamerican Highway

3000

open sun, roadside

10 Jan 1990

T. Mione & C. McQueen 468, 469

CONN, NY

Canar

above El Tambo

3300

sparsely brushy hillside

29 July 1962

Játiva, C. & C. Epling 253

US

Cotopaxi

Hacienda Surnbagua or Sumbaga (handwriting difficult to read)

3600

in crevice on cliff-face

15 Nov 1939

O. Haught 2943

US

Carchi

Near Angel

3200 - 3300

rocky . . (T.M. can't read the rest)

6 -7 July 1935

Y. Mexia 7550

US

             
Zamora Chichipe Road between El Progreso and Guaramizal, ca. halfway to Guaramizal, 4 48' 23" S, 79 07'26"W 1430 possibly roadside, given that the location reads "road" 28 Mar 2005 L. Bohs et al. 3325 QCNE, UT

to be organized into above table: Ecuador. Imbabura: on rd. from Otavalo to Selva Alegre, 29.4 km from junction of Pan Amer Hwy, 2900 m, 28 May 1991, Spooner et al . 5113 (CONN).  
Pichincha: canton Quito, Parroquia Nanegalito, quebrada Santa Rosa, steep slopes SW of Río Pichán, 2000 m, 12 Jan 1995, Webster and Rhode 31234 (DAV).  
Tungurahua: vicinity of Ambato, Feb 1919, Pachano 138 (GH, NY, US).
Cañar: outskirts of Asorgues, 2897 m, 27 Jun 1939, Balls B7327 (K, US).
Loja: road to La Toma on slopes of Cerro Villonaco, ca. 10 km west of Loja, 2440 m, 7 Mar 1965, Knight 583 (WIS).

Colombia specimens, Jaltomata sinuosa

Department

Locality

elevation m

habitat

date

collector

data entry

Cundinamarca

Tequendama

2500

wet bank

22 July 1949

O. Haught 6533 (US)

Sep 2010

Colombia. Cundinamarca: Cordillera Oriental, Monserrate, Valle del Río San Francisco, 2700-2900 m, 18 Jun 1948, Hawkes and García-Barriga 100 (K, US);
Cordillera Oriental, western slopes, 20 km from Bogotá, via Salto de Tequendama-El Colegio road, 2470 m, 13 Jan 1976, Luteyn et al . 4817 (K, MO, NY).

Peru specimens, Jaltomata sinuosa

Department

Province

Locality

elevation
m

habitat

date

collector and collection number

Amazonas

Mendoza

Mendoza

1400-1500

"open place"

19 Aug 1963

Woytkowski 8153 (MO, NY)

Amazonas

province Chchapoyas

km 422 road from Balsas to Leymebamba, then walked uphill towards Museo Leymebamba (6° 43 27.77 S, 77° 47 54.36 W) about 10 to 15 min

 

growing in wall of abandoned home,
link to movie

15 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 849** leaf for DNA and flowers in alcohol both collected, and photo and movie

Amazonas

province Chchapoyas

06 43.346 S, 77 52.631 W. km 399-400 Balsas to Leimebamba road.

3,458

roadside

15 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 851**

Amazonas

province Chchapoyas

km 389 of old system, km 208 of new system
Balsas to Leimebamba road.

full sun, roadside

15 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 852**

Amazonas

province Chchapoyas

2 kms along road W of Chachapoyas

2195

"along road"

13 Jan 1983

R. M. King & L. E. Bishop 9179 (G, K, MO, US)

Amazonas

Chachapoyas

Dist. Leimebamba. Fundo Villa Aurora-Los Chilchos. S 6 43' 34,56", W 77 36' 34,26"

1707

Chacras de cultivo abandonados

31 Aug 2004

V. Quipuscoa S. et al. 3191 (HUSA)

Piura

Huancabamba, alrededores de Sapalache

2400

9 Jun 1997

S. Leiva et al. 2042 (CONN, HAO)

Piura

Huancabamba: Salala. In quebrada and along road to El Shimbe. 05 06' S, 79 28' W.

2980

8 Jun 1997

N. W. Sawyer 807 (herbarium of Mione) [same date and same locality as Leiva 2036, so probably same population]

Piura

Huancabamba

entre kms 15 y 25, carretera entre Canchaque y Huancabamba

no data

no data

21 Mar 1989

C. Díaz & H. Beltrán 3378 (NY)

Cajamarca

Celendín

Dist. Sorochuco. Desvío a Sorochuco, bajando Tahuan

2900

bosque perennifolio muy modificado

27 Dec 1998

I. Sánchez Vega 4943 (F)

Cajamarca

Chota

Road to Paccha, Paccha - Huicate turnoff (bridge) east of Bambamarca

2200

no data

12.5.1998

M. Weigend & N. Dostert 98/118C (F)

Cajamarca

Chota

Entre Bambamarca y Chota, al otro lado del paso Samangay

2680

En huertos familiares. Cultivada.

3 Dec 1990

I. Sánchez Vega 5353 (F)

Cajamarca

Chota

Ruta a Cabracancha,
al Sur Oeste de Chota

2220

En huertos familiares. Cultivada.

5 Dec 1990

I. Sánchez Vega 5355 (F)

Cajamarca

Chota

parked at 6 27.211 S, 79 01.193 W and then walked 2 - 7 min up Quebrada

2573

edge of ulluco field

18 Mar 2007

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 733
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 3632

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Alrededores de San Benito

1300

lecho del río San Benito

3-02-1985

S. Sagástegui A., S. Leiva G. & C. Sagástegui C. 12471 (MO NY) [isotype of J. whalenii].

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Alrededores de San Benito

1300

lecho del río San Benito

28 Mar 1985

S. Sagástegui A. & S. Leiva G. 12548 (BH NY)

Cajamarca

Cutervo, garden in village of San Andrés de Cutervo

2050

6 Nov 1990

Dillon et a. 6193 (F) [grown as Mione 534]

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Bambamarca

2600

no notes

28 Jun 1968

Soukup & Carmona H924 (WIS)

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Apán, entre Hualgayoc y Bambamarca

2850

ladera de arbustos y herbáceas. Suelo calizo

11 Mar 1994

I. Sánchez Vega 6868 (F)

Lambayeque

Ferreñafe

Cañaris

2600

junto a pastizales, campos abiertos

24 Jun 1989

L. Llatas Quiroz 2486 (F)

Lambayeque

Ferreñafe

3 min by pickup truck before Incahuasi

about 3000

roadside or edge of agricultural field

23 March 2011

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 815 (not yet deposited at an herbarium, Mione's collection)

La Libertad

Bolivar

7 02 39.7 S, 77 52 28.3 W

2,641

among rocks near roadside

14 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 848**
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 5861

Ancash

Corongo

8 34 46.7 S, 77 54 07.1 W, near Corongo

3,090

roadside

18 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 861** small plant not flowering, no fruits, not identified with certainty

Huanuco   Cani, pueblo 7 miles N. E. of Mito

2,591

among wayside weeds 16-26 Apr 1923 J. F. Macbride 3443 (F, GH, NY, US)

 Huanuco

  Huamalíes

  9 52 41.5 S, 76, 28, 19.9 W, Puente Vera

  3,265

  open sun, roadside

  19 May 2016

  T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 869
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 6045

Pasco

Oxapampa

Parque Nacional Yanachaga, S 10 17' 22,3714" , W 75 31 5,4502"

1790

no data

22-24 Mar 2008

M. Cueva et al. 242-298 (HUSA)

Junín Huancayo edge of city Huancayo, Quebrada Ocopilla, parked at 12 04.120 S,
075 10.941 W and walked about 20 min uphill along a stream
3300 steep wall of quebrada above steam, shade 24 May 2016 T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 877
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 6077
Junín Huancayo edge of city Huancayo, Quebrada Ocopilla, parked at 12 04.120 S,
075 10.941 W and walked about 20 min uphill along a stream
3300 clearing along a trail paralleling stream, full sun, flowers and ripe fruit 24 May 2016 T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 878
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 6078
Junín Huancayo edge of city Huancayo, Quebrada Ocopilla, parked at 12 04.120 S,
075 10.941 W and walked about 20 min uphill along a stream
3300 trailside, steep incline, shade 24 May 2016 T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 879
S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 6079

Ayacucho

La Mar

izq. Apurímac, Rosario

800*

laderas abiertas

9 Dec 1964

C. Vargas C. 15983 (CUZ)

Ayacucho

La Mar

cerca a Ayna

2300

pedregal

9 Dec 1964

C. Vargas C. 16001 (CUZ)

Apurimac

Abancay

Lucmo, Curahuasi
(spellings on label: Lucmos)

2650

ladoras exrofilas

20 Mar 1946

C. Vargas C. 5916 (CUZ)

Apurimac

Abancay

Curahuasi

3250 - 3800

no data

23 Feb 1950

C. Vargas C. 9200 (CUZ)

Apurimac

Abancay

quebrada Marará

2400

en lugar humeda borde río

29 Dec 1950

C. Vargas C. 10009 (CUZ)

Apurimac

Grau

Mancahuara

3000

peregoso

22 Jan 1939

C. Vargas C. 1422,
also numbered as 9798 (CUZ)

Apurimac

Grau

Mancahuara, Oropeza Valley

3000

in rocky or clayey ground

23 Jan 1939

C. Vargas 9798 (G, K)

Apurimac

Abancay

quebrada Matará

2400

en lugar humedo, borde río

29 Dec 1950

C. Vargas C. 18809 (CUZ) [collection number difficult to read and therefore possibly incorrect]

Cuzco

Anta

Limatambo, cerca a los Baños

2300

Mar 1937

C. Vargas C. 201a (CUZ)

Cuzco

Calca

Hda Urco

2800

junto a cercos

13 Jan 1945

C. Vargas C. 4855 (CUZ)

Cuzco

Urubamba

Ollantaytambo

3000

no data

27 Apr 1915

O. F. Cook & G. B. Gilbert 404 (NY US)

Cuzco

Urubamba

handwriting impossible to read: Andenerías de Yucay

no data

no data

no data

A. Tupauachi H. 1439 (CUZ)

Cuzco

Acomayo

Mayu - Huillca

2900

Feb 1937

C. Vargas C. 201 (CUZ, F, GH, MO)

Cuzco

Urubamba

handwriting impossible to read:
Pumahuanca a Pacchayoce

3000

laderas umedas
handwriting of 2nd word impossible to read and so i may have recorded the 2nd word incorrectly

Jan 1949

C. Varcas C. 7818 (CUZ)

Cuzco

Urubamba

Machu Picchu

2134

in wet ground beside track

12.11 1937

D. Stafford 1224 (K)

Cuzco

Urubamba

Machu Picchu

2134

among shrubs, open hillside

2 Feb 1938

D. Stafford 1224 (K)

Puno

Carabaya

Ollachea a pte. Ackopampa

2750

borde camino

31 Dec 1947

C. Varcas C. 6954 (CUZ)

Department

Province

Locality

elevation
m

habitat

date

collector and collection number

* altitude given on specimen label is difficult to believe for this species

** no herbarium specimen, lost in transit from S. to N. America

 

 

the specimens listed immediately below will be put in the above table

Ayabaca, alrededor de Yacupampa (Ayabaca - Cuyas), 2702 m, 21 Sep 1996, Leiva et al. 1867 (CONN, HAO).

Chota, 6 0 33' 54" S, 78 0 38' 42" W, 2300 m, 19 Jun 1999, Leiva 2374 and Mione 672 (CONN, HAO);

Santa Cruz, ruta Chorro Blanco - Monteseco, 1750 m, 21 Jan 1996, Leiva et al . 1756 (HAO);

Hualgayoc, entre Hualgayoc y Bambamarca, 2850 m, 11 Mar 1994, Sánchez 6868 (F);

Celendín, desvío a Sorochuco, bajando Tahuan, 2900 m, 27 Dec 1988, Sánchez 4943 (F);

San Miguel, 7 0 00' 02" S, 78 0 50' 41" W, 18 Jun 1999, Leiva 2369 and Mione 668 (CONN, HAO)

Lambayeque: Ferreñafe, Cañaris, 2600 m, 24 Jun 1989, Llatas 2486 (F).

 

Bolivia:

 

 

 

 

 

La Paz

Prov. Larecaja, Sorata, trail Sorata to San Pedro

2475 m

18 May 2001

Nee et al. 51826 / Bohs 01-58 (herbarium unknown, seeds of this collection were kindly sent by Bohs and Nee to Mione, grown as Mione 702

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Bautista Saavadra, Charazani 20 kms hacia Apolo, 2400 m, 5 Aug 1985, Beck 11396 (NY);
Larecaja. Sorata, Challapampa, ca. 2600 m, Jul - Aug 1863, Mandon 429 (G);

Department La Paz, province Murillo, Carretera La Paz-Zongo-Chururaqui. Between Cuticucho and Chururaqui, 2140 m, 29 Feb 2004, S. D. Smith, S. Leiva and S. J. Hall 448 (HAO, F, Mione's study collection, MO, NY, LPB, WIS)

Table 5, Synonyms of Jaltomata sinuosa

Hebecladus sinuosus Miers, Lond. J. Bot. 7: 352. 1848.   Miers, Ill. S. Am. Pl. 1: 151-2. 1850.   TYPE: Peru. Dept. Amazonas, Chachapoyas, Mathews s. n. (HOLOTYPE: BM; ISOTYPE: G two sheets, K).   Saracha sinuosa (Miers) Bitter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 101. 1922.

Saracha glandulosa Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 3: 450. 1849. TYPE: Colombia. La Peña, Bogota, J. Goudot s. n. (HOLOTYPE: P, F. neg. 39250; ISOTYPE: F).   Witheringia glandulosa (Miers) Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 11: 92. 1853.   Miers, Ill. S. Amer. Pl. 2: 20. 1857, t. 39a. Jaltomata glandulosa (Miers) Castillo & R. E. Schult., Rhodora 88: 292. 1986.

Saracha vestita Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 3: 449. 1849. TYPE: Ecuador. "Minasurcu prope Quito" on types ("Minashuaicu" is the Defense Mapping Agency [1987] spelling), Hartweg 1292 (HOLOTYPE: K; ISOTYPE: LD shown below). Witheringia vestita (Miers) Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 11: 92. 1853.   Jaltomata vestita (Miers) Castillo & R. E. Schult., Rhodora 88: 292. 1986.

Jaltomata whalenii S. Knapp, T. Mione and Sagást., Brittonia 43: 181. 1991.   TYPE: Peru, Dept. Cajamarca, Prov. Contumazá, lecho de Río San Benito, alrededores de San Benito, 1300 m, A. Sagástegui A., S. Leiva G. and C. Sagástegui C. 12471 (Holotype: HUT; Isotypes: IBE, MO, NY).

 

Figure 11. Stigma and style of Jaltomata sinuosa. Photographed along a metric ruler (vertical white lines are one mm apart), after flower had been stored in 70% ethanol for years. Mione et al. 733.

 

Figure 7 Leaf from a greenhouse-grown plant of J. sinuosa, top of leaf, scanned by T. Mione 2015, Mione 702.

Figure 8. Leaf from a greenhouse-grown plant of J. sinuosa, bottom of leaf, scanned by T. Mione 2015, Mione 702.

 

Figure 9, above. Leaf of Jaltomata sinuosa photographed in Peru, Mione et al. 848, photo by T. Mione, Peru, Department La Libertad.

 

The above two photos are of the isotype of Saracha vestita Miers (LD), photographed December 2004. Saracha vestita was transferred to Jaltomata as J. vestita (Miers) Castillo & R. E. Schult., and is a synonym of Jaltomata sinuosa.

plates from the Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada

above, Figure . Flower of Jaltomata sinuosa, Mione et al. 848, photo by T. Mione, Peru, Department La Libertad.

below, Figure . Segundo Leiva González on left with a local man who steered us in the right direction to find Jaltomata on the edge of the city of Huancayo, in Quebrada Ocopilla, May 2016.

above, Figure . Peru, Department Junín, edge of city Huancayo, Quebrada Ocopilla, May 2016, photo by T. Mione

 

 


 

Bud pollination. On three healthy plants in two different greenhouses a few corollas remained closed despite reaching the size at which a corolla normally opens (fall 2016 through January 2017, accessions 702 and 878). On the same plants at the same time I saw both 1) fully open (normal) flowers and 2) flowers having never-been-open corollas containing stamens with dehisced anthers (above).  Stamens are adnate to the corolla, and so when the corolla-androecium abscises the anthers encounter the stigma if they have not done so previously.

11 flowers that looked like they were not going to open were tagged, but then four of these did open, and seven did not, and of the seven that did not open all set fruits (with removal of the other flowers of each inflorescence without disturbing the remaining flower). Again, seven fruits were produced. Thus, self-pollination inside the bud was demonstrated.

Note the anther (dehisced) protruding through the otherwise closed corolla.  This was not seen on wild plants. Photo is of accession 702, Photo by Thomas Mione and Ken Plourd.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

below, Jaltomata sinuosa plates from the Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada.

I got the idea to write to the staff at MA, requesting images of these, after reading about them in a 1986 article by R. Castillo and R. E. Schultes, Rhodora volume 88, pages 291-292.

These species were not known as Jaltomata when they were described. These two plates are almost certainly plates nos. 3733 and 3734, because these are the numbers used by Castillo and Schultes, and I requested plates having these numbers.

I thanked the staff of MA for sending me these plates in Rhodora, volume 102, page 390, year 2000.