Jaltomata spooneri

Peru
revised 28 Aug 2014  
Link to Jaltomata homepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall,
1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru
Phytologia 95(2): 167-171. 2013.
The specific epithet honors David M. Spooner for his repeated generous gifts of Jaltomata seeds and specimens to T. M. for study.
Link to the Jaltomata of southern Peru
Figure 1. Flowers of Jaltomata spooneri show stigma at same height as dehisced anthers, pollen on the stigma of the flower at left, and the hole in the base of the corolla (flower at left) suggests nectar robbing (Mione et al 800, photo by Segundo Leiva G.)
Figure 2. Jaltomata spooneri, held by the woman in the photo, is locally common (Mione et al 800, photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 3. Flowers are apparently protogynous: the top-most flower shows undehisced anthers while the lowest two flowers show dehisced anthers of stamens that have apparently elongated
(Mione et al. 800, photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 4. Jaltomata spooneri growing in foreground next to rocks; home
and bicycle in background
(Mione et al. 800, photo by Thomas Mione).
 

Table 1. Description of Jaltomata spooneri.

Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Shrub to 2 m, perennial,
growing next to and in / among other plants
 
Branches, young
subterete / angled; sparsely hairy, the hairs dendritic, forked and finger (some gland-tipped, most not)  
older
terete, with lenticels  
Leaves, size
the blade to 11.7 cm long X 8.7 cm wide, geminate, papyraceous (sturdier than membranous but not coriaceous)  
shape lanceolate or ovate with the apex acuminate, the margin entire to somewhat repand  
hairs the blade minutely pubescent, the hairs simple and / or dendritic, the margin ciliate  
petiole to 2.7 cm  
Inflorescence
axillary, 2 (-3) flowered  
peduncle
terete, green, to 1.5 cm long, with finger hairs
mostly gland-tipped
 
pedicel
green, having 5 raised longitudinal ridges, with finger hairs mostly gland-tipped, to 2 cm long  
Calyx at flowering
green, on flowers of Mione et al. 800 pigmented purple between lobes on abaxial face (showing upward),
the lobes triangular,
23 mm lobe tip across to lobe tip, abaxially a mixture of uniseriate unbranched (finger) and forked hairs all gland-tipped
 
shape / position when flowering rotate to somewhat reflexed 3
at fruit maturity
25 mm from lobe tip across to lobe tip with unripe fruit, possibly somewhat larger with mature fruit
 
Corolla color
pale-green, the veins pigmented purple (Mione et al. 800) or unpigmented (Mione et al. 799) 5
shape and size
tubular, the tube 1.2 - 1.7 cm long on herbarium specimens, 1.5 - 2 cm long measured in the field, 7 - 10.5 mm across perpendicular to the length where widest (herbarium specimens); the limb recurved, to 3 cm in diam on herbarium specimens depending on how the corolla was pressed, 2.5 cm in diam measured in the field  
lobes / lobules
alternating, totaling 10; the lobes cream-green, the lobules cream  
hairs
abaxially (outer) simple usually not gland-tipped but sometimes gland-tipped,
inner extremely short and simple,
the margin ciliate
 
Stamen length including anther
to 27 mm long including anther  
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla
(applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube)
commonly to 12 mm, up to 15 mm
(measurements made on pressed specimens)
1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
yes: radial expansions of the bases of the stamens, adnate to the corolla, create nectar troughs between the radial expansions / thickenings 12
base expanded laterally? no  
filaments unpigmented, glabrous  
anther color yellow  
anther size 2.1 - 2.7 mm long (dehisced, herbarium specimens);
3 mm long X 2 mm wide (field notes);
sagittate or not, depending on orientation when pressed
10
anther mucronate/mucronulate mucronulate both Mione et al. 799 & 800, field notes
insertion of filament on the lower ventral face of anther  
anthers of a flower open simultaneously? some of the photos taken in Peru (Mione et al. 799 & 800) show some but not all of the anthers of a flower dehisced, thus dehiscence is nonsimultaneous at least in some instances  
pollen quantity per flower 92,500 - 109,000 (n = 2 flowers) Mione et al.799 & 800, counts by Emmett P. Varricchio, 2012, flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study)
pollen grain size 32.5 - 37.5 µm,
mean 34.69 µm
Mione et al. 800, 18 grains, flower collected in Peru and stored in 70% ethanol, measured 2012
corona no  
Stigma
capitate, darker green than style,
bilobed (viewed with a 10X hand lens)
16, 17, 1, 3, 7, 8, 10
Style
26 - 28 mm long, pale-green 8, 1, 3, 9, 10, 11,12,16,17
Ovary
green; the disk orangish and about 20 - 30% the height of the ovary 13, 14, 15
Ovules per ovary
225 - 236 (n = 2 flowers)
13, 15
Nectar
transparent  
Herkogamy only sometimes: several of the flowers in figure 11 show a few mm between stigma and dehisced anthers. Fig. 1 no, Fig.11 yes
Protogyny yes 3, 10
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
mature fruits not seen, most likely orange (a local person described the ripe fruit as "amarillo")
to 1.3 cm diameter but fruits measured were unripe and so mature fruits may be slightly larger
6, 9
Seeds per fruit
no data
no data
Seed Size
no data
no data
Chromosome number
no data
no data
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Self-Compatible?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
no data
no data
Ratio of pollen to ovules
411 - 462 (n = 2 flowers) Mione et al. 799 & 800
Character above, Description of J. spooneri Figures on this web page



Table 2. Specimens Studied, grouped by Department then province, then oldest to most recent
Department Province Locality altitude m habitat date collector Data Entry
Cuzco
Quispicanchi
Marcapata
no data
no data
15-16 Feb 1929
A. Weberbauer 7789 (NY, US)
July 2012
Cuzco
Quispicanchi
alrededores de Marcapata
3100
laderas de arbustos
7 Dec 1962
C. Vargas C. 14039 (CUZ)
Jan 2011
               
               
Puno
Carabaya
Pte. Ackopampa
3425
borde camino pedregoso
31 Dec 1947
C. Vargas C. 6978 (CUZ, US)
Jan 2011
Puno
Carabaya
En Chicha Ccori, entre Ollachea y Macusani
2800
no data
17 Feb 1983
C. Ochoa & A. Salas 15075 (US)
July 2012
Puno

Carabaya

Dist. Ayapata; Comunidad La Escalera
S 13 50.23, W 70 19.1
3300 - 3700
Pajonal estacionalmente húmedo con presencia de arbustos. Ladera húmeda.
5 Mar 2004
E. Ortiz V. et al. 5 (HUSA)
Jan 2011
Puno

Carabaya

Dist. Ayapata; Comunidad Kana, Cerros al O de la población. S 13 47.91, W 70 18.79
3300 - 3500
Ladera pedregosa estacionalmente húmeda, dominada por herbáceas. Ladera húmeda.
6 Mar 2004
S. Vilca C. et al. 45 (HUSA)
Jan 2011
Puno

Carabaya

La Escalera / Kana,
S 13 50.07, W 70 19.65
3598
along trails to homes, around homes, roadside
10 Jan 2010
T. Mione et al. 800 (HUSA);
Leiva G. et al. 4656 (HAO)
Jan 2010
Puno
Macusani
Road from Ollachea to Macusani, S 13 50', W 070 29'
3200
Cloud forest remnants and cultivated land in between
1.2.2000
M. & K. Weigend 2000/100 (HUSA)
Jan 2011
Puno
Sandia
Limbani
3000
no data
22 Nov 1938
C. Vargas C. 1299 (CUZ, MO)
Jan 2011
Puno
Sandia
Environs of Limbani
3400
close to fences and dwellings
21 Nov 1938
C. Vargas 9654 (G)
July 2012
Puno
Sandia
En el camino de Machu Tticani a Patanbino
3300
19 Feb 1983
C. Ochoa & A. Salas 15085 (US)
July 2012
Puno

Sandia

from Patambuco drive 3.6 km out of town to Escuela San Luis, ca. 300 m from school along path to valley of Río Rumichaca,
14 23 W, 69 36 S.
3500
in old rock wall
27 Feb 1998
D. M. Spooner et al. 7402a (herbarium of Thomas Mione)
July 2012
Puno

Sandia

Patambuco
S 14 21' 41.5, W 69 37' 18.4
3594 - 3602
roadside, rocks
9 Jan 2010
T. Mione et al. 799 (HUSA);
Leiva G. et al. 4655 (HAO)
Jan 2010

 

 

Figure 5. Inverted corolla of Jaltomata spooneri
(Leiva G. et al. 4656, photo by Segundo Leiva G.).
Figure 6. Unripe fruits of Jaltomata spooneri
(Mione et al. 799, photo by Victor Quipuscoa S.).
Figure 7. All five anthers are undehsiced
(Mione et al. 800, photo by T. Mione).
Figure 8. The stigma-style-ovary-calyx of one flower are on top of an intact flower having dehisced anthers
(Mione et al. 800, photo by T. Mione).
Figure 9. Jaltomata spooneri flowers show evidence of nectar robbing, and unripe fruit in upper left
(Mione et al. 800 , photo by S. Leiva G.).
Figure 10. Jaltomata spooneri flower, flower bud upper left (Mione et al. 799, units along bottom are mm, photo by T. Mione).
Figure 11. Flowers of Jaltomata spooneri show evidence of nectar robbing. Anthers that have not yet dehisced are whitish to cream while anthers that have dehisced are brown and have a fuzzy appearance (T. Mione, Leiva G., L. Yacher, V. Quipuscoa et al 799, photo by Segundo Leiva G.).
Figure 12. Flower of Jaltomata spooneri dissected to show radial thickenings (extending radially from the bases of the stamens).
Calyx and part of corolla were manually removed (Photo by Thomas Mione 2012, Mione et al. 799).
Figure 13. Ovary of Jaltomata spooneri. Ovary wall was partially removed to show ovules. Style was removed.
Preserved in 70% ethanol before and during photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 799.
Figure 14. Intact ovary of Jaltomata spooneri. Preserved in 70% ethanol prior to and during photo by Thomas Mione. Mione et al. 800. Figure 15. Nearly all of the ovary wall was removed to reveal ovules of Jaltomata spooneri; same ovary as shown in the figure immediately to the left. Preserved in 70% ethanol prior to and during photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 800.
stigma of Jaltomata spooneri stigma of Jaltomata spooneri
Figure 16. Stigma of Jaltomata spooneri. The photo at the right is the same stigma, but rotated about 90 degrees. Dark lines (out of focus) at top are one mm apart. Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 800. Figure 17. Stigma of Jaltomata spooneri. The photo at the left is the same stigma, but rotated about 90 degrees. Dark lines at top are one mm apart. Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 800.
filaments glabrous…collected above Ollantaytambu, image by Sandra Knapp 10388




Acknowledgements
We thank Gregory J. Anderson and Stacey D. Smith for review of the manuscript that was published, the curators of BH, COLO, F, K, MO, NY and US for loan of specimens, and Emmett P. Varricchio for the pollen count.