Jaltomata ventricosa (Baker) Mione
Peru
revised 30 October 2017  

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a personal communication with Thomas Mione (Biology Department, Central Connecticut State Uiversity, New Britain, CT 06050-4010) and Segundo Leiva G.
Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo Peru.
Brittonia 45(2):
138-145. 1993.
Link to the Jaltomata of La Libertad, Peru
Link to Jaltomata of northern Peru
Link to chromosome count
Link to local names including of this species
Link to list of Jaltomata species having edible fruits including this species
Link to table of Jaltomata species having red / orange nectar
Figure 1, above. Jaltomata ventricosa flower. Note the ripe or nearly ripe fruit at lower left. All anthers have dehisced. Photo by T. Mione Mione 867 in Peru.
Figure 2, above. Jaltomata ventricosa flowers. Note that the anthers of a flower do not dehisce simultaneously. Photo by T. Mione 867 in Peru.
Figure 3, above. Jaltomata ventricosa. Note that the anthers of a flower do not dehisce simultaneously and that anthers of the longer stamens dehisced first.
Photo by T. Mione 867 in Peru.

 

Table 1. Description of Jaltomata ventricosa

Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Erect perennial shrub to 1.5 m high  
Branches, young
sparsely to densely pubescent depending on the specimen, the hairs both finger and dendritic all not- gland-tipped  
older
glabrate  
Leaves, size
blade to 6.5 cm long by 4.5 cm wide; the upper surface bright green  
shape ovate, acute; entire or less commonly sinuate-dentate or toothed with no more than 3 teeth per margin  
hairs   hypocotyl and cotyledons of seedlings are pubescent with unpigmented conspicuously gland-tipped finger hairs
(Oct 2016, Mione et al. 867)
petiole    
Inflorescence
usually 1-2 (-4) flowered, sometimes branched on cultivated plants from seed of Leiva 138 but not mentioned in the protologue nor shown in the lectotype. 
Flowers nodding from 45 degrees below horizontal to pendent.   Flower buds triangular when viewed perpendicular to bud's length.  
During the summer of 2017 an outdoor plant of 867 had 4 to 6 flowers per inflorescence, higher than seen previously. However, flowers were not developing properly, for example stamens of flowers of wild plants are exserted (Figures 1, 2, 3) but the flowers on the plant of 867 in the summer of 2017 were not long enough to be exserted.
peduncle
4 - 9 mm long; green; terete   
pedicel
7 - 16 mm long; always longer than peduncle to which it is attached; green; terete   
Calyx at flowering
shiny green abaxially; to 3.4 cm across,
lobe radius 9.5-10 mm; sinus radius 3-5 mm.  
"across" means lobe tip to lobe tip
shape / position when flowering rotate  
at fruit maturity   Figure 9
Corolla color
whitish to pale yellow, the base of the flower filling with orange-red nectar visible through the corolla  
green spots no  
purple ring no  
purple in base of corolla yes: the base of the tube pigmented purple  
shape and size
the tube urceolate 8-10 mm long; the limb completely and outwardly recurved, 12-14.5 mm diameter    
lobes/lobules
10-total, the lobes and lobules alternating, as shown in the bottom left of the lectoype illustration below  
hairs
the throat of the corolla is pilosulose  
yes  
Stamen length including anther
13 -- 22 mm on living flowers,
12 -- 19 mm estimated from intact flowers on herbarium specimens 
 
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) 7 -- 9 mm  
base expanded laterally? Yes, as seen in ventral view  
filaments whitish, slender part pubescent on basal half; the hairs purple, dendritic, to 0.7 mm long    
anther color yellow, the connective green Figure 10
anther size undehisced 2.6-3.0 mm long X 2.0-2.2 mm wide; dehisced 2-2.3 mm long, sagittate at base.    
anther mucronate / mucronulate no originally scored as "no" with field-collected specimen, and confirmed Sept 2017 with cultivated plant of Mione et al. 867
insertion of filament into anther

Directly up and into the anther.
More of the filament is revealed in ventral view than in dorsal view.

Figure 10
anthers with temporally staggered dehiscence ? yes Mione et al. 712, 867
pollen quantity per flower    
pollen grain size    
corona no  
Stigma
not bilobed, scarcely wider than the style,
exserted beyond anthers up to 5 mm  
 
Style
13.8-15.7 mm long,
to 28.5 mm long (Mione et al. 867
 
Ovary
   
Nectar
   
Herkogamy Yes  
Protogyny Yes  
Fruit color (at maturity) and size

orange (based on observations both
in greenhouse in U.S.A. and in Peru)
9 X 11.3 mm (in greenhouse, one fruit)
to 15 mm diam pressed specimens

3
Seeds per fruit
59 in pollinator-free greenhouse (one fruit)
57 seeds in one fruit (wild-collected, Mione et al. 867)
 
Seed Size
Length: 1.4 - 1.67; Width 1.16 - 1.42;
Thickness 0.44 - 0.52 mm
field-collected seeds
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
 
Ratio of pollen to ovules
no data
 
Character Description of Jaltomata ventricosa  

 

Character Description  
Growability in Connecticut, USA
Did not do well in the heat of the summer but in September outdoor plants looked quite healthy and floriferous
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Flowers Closing For The Night?
No
Observation (on Mione et al. 867) by Mione at 9:00 pm in September of 2017
Self-Compatible?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
Seeds planted 6 Sept 2016 first germinated 28 Sept: 22 days until the first above-ground evidence of germination.
However, new seedlings were noted/recorded in January and February of 2017, four to nearly five months after seeds were planted. A heat mat was used for about a month, but no heat mat was used after about one month.
Mione 867
Pollen quantity per flower    
Ovules per ovary
118-181   n = 3 ovaries
Ratio of pollen to ovules
   
Chromosome number
n = 12 Mione et al. (1993)
Character Jaltomata ventricosa  

 

 

 

 

year  History   
1870 

Hebecladus ventricosus Baker was described, without mention of a type locality and without reference to a particular herbarium specimen. The black and white illustration shown on this page (Figure 4) is part of the protologue. The illustration was almost certainly that of a cultivated plant, because at the end of the protologue we can read "It thrives well, cultivated in a cool greenhouse, grown in sandy loam and peat, and allowed plenty of pot room." According to the protologue "Mr. Farris" made the type collection, at least the seeds that were used to grow the plant that was illustrated (below).

Refugium botanicum; or, figures and descriptions ... 3: t. 208.

(Refug. Bot.)
 1962
Macbride's description (in English) of H. ventricosus Baker is essentially the same as the description in the protologue. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13: Part V-B, No. 1. Page 39.
 1992
Mione made the new combination Jaltomata ventricosa (Baker) Mione in his doctoral dissertation, and redescribed the species. Systematics and evolution of Jaltomata (Solanaceae). Ph.D. dissertation, Univeristy of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut. pages 113 - 115.
 1993
The illustration lower on this page (Figure 4) became the lectotype, and the new combination Jaltomata ventricosa (Baker) Mione was validly published.
In this paper berries were described as edible, while in the protologue they were described as poisonous.
Brittonia 45(2): 138 - 145.
 1998

Segundo Leiva González illustrated and described (in Spanish) Jaltomata ventricosa (Baker) Mione in his masters thesis.

Leiva's illustration of the corolla shows only 5 lobes, while his description mentions 10. The protologue shows and describes lobes and lobules alternating, totaling 10, also observed by Mione (1992) and Mione et al. (1993).

Las especies del genero Jaltomata Schlech. (Solanaceae: Solaneae) del norte de Peru. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Escuela de Post-Grado, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Maestría en Botánica Tropical, Lima, Peru, pages 16 - 19.

    

     Known only from Peru, Department La Libertad, altitude usually 2,900-3,500 m. Flowering Dec., Jan, Feb., May, June. Roadsides, rock walls, and rocky areas.   

Province Locality elevation m habitat date collector Data Entry
Sanchez Carrion* Near Humachuco
3500
dry banks, roadside 3 Dec 1936 J. West 8193 (GH) Feb 2007
Santiago de Chuco Quiruvilca
3963**
banks of road "9.1.64" S. G. E. Saunders 952 (K) Feb 2007
Otuzco Tamobamba (handwriting not legible)
2700
borde de carretera 13 Nov 1966 M. Román V. (US) Sep 2010
Otuzco Cerro Ragache (Salpo)
3200
al pié de rocas 23 May 1984 A. Sagástegui A. et al. 11574 (MO NY) Feb 2007
Otuzco San Miguel (camino Salpo-Samne)
2500**
borde de carretera 5 June 1990 S. Leiva & P. Leiva 118 (F HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Salpo - Shitahuara (Al norte de Salpo)
3100
cerco de piedras 15 June 1990 S. Leiva 138 (F NY); grown for study as Mione 535 Feb 2007
Otuzco Cerro de los Enamorados (Al norte de Salpo)
3380
base de rocas 12 June 1991 S. Leiva & P. Leiva 329 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Cerro de los Enamorados (Al norte de Salpo)
3450
ladera 26 May 1993 S. Leiva et al. 733 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Abajo de San Miguel (ruta a Samne)
2900
cerco de piedras, en borde de carretera 27 May 1993 S. Leiva et al. 743 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Abajo de Shitahuara (al norte de Salpo)
3050
ladera con abundante arbustos 15 June 1993 S. Leiva 788 (HAO NY) Feb 2007
Otuzco Agallpampa - Chanchacap
2920
borde de carretera 7 Jan 1994 S. Leiva et al. 961 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Alrededores de Salpo
3300
borde de chacra 7 Jan 1994 S. Leiva et al. 981 (F) Feb 2007
Otuzco Shitahuara (al norte de Salpo)
3300
borde de camino, entre arbustos de Franseria 13 June 1994 S. Leiva et al. 1151 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Abajo de Shitahuara (al norte de Salpo)
3320
cerco de piedras 13 June 1994 S. Leiva et al. 1185 (F HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco Base del Cerro Quinga (al este de Salpo)
3500
borde de carretera 1 May 1995 S. Leiva G. 1723 (HAO) Feb 2007
Otuzco alrededores de Chota - Motil
3300
riachuelo entre Rubus robustus, Passiflora peduncula 8 Feb 1997 S. Leiva & V. Quipuscoa 1928 (F) Feb 2007
Otuzco abajo de San Miguel (ruta Salpo-Samne)
3070
borde de chacra de Solanum tuberosum 11 May 1997 S. Leiva G. 1979 (F) Feb 2007
Otuzco
not recorded in field notebook. We were near the site of collection of J. bernardelloana 640
no data
no data
11-12 June 1999 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 641
(only seeds were collect and photo above)
Feb 2007
Otuzco Agallpampa. 7 58 56 S, 78 32 54 W
3106
roadside 9 June 2005 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 712 (not pressed, no seeds, photos only) Feb 2007
Otuzco Base of Cerro Quinga 8 03 58.5 S, 78 34 28.4 W
3755
roadside 21 May 2015 Mione, Leiva & Yacher 867 (pressed specimen lost);
S. Leiva et al. 5900 (HAO)
Jun 2015

* Province not mentioned on specimen, added by Tom Mione. On a map one can see Huamachuco, not the spelling on the herbarium specimen (Humachuco).
** Lowest and highest altitudes recorded.

Figure 4, above. Jaltomata ventricosa. Back (abaxial face) of calyx to show shape and color of sepal. Photo by T. Mione 867 in Peru.
Figure 5, above. Jaltomata ventricosa flower. Note that the anthers of a flower do not dehisce simultaneously. Units on ruler are mm.
Photo by T. Mione 867 in Peru.

 

Figure 6. Lectotype of Jaltomata ventricosa

 

Figure 7, at left: Inflorescence

Note:
a) the base of the urceolate corolla
is filled with red-orange nectar
visible through the wall
of the corolla!
b) corolla has both lobes (5)
and lobules (5) alternating
with each other
c) anthers have dehisced
d) stigma is darker green
than the style,
and is exserted beyond
the dehisced anthers.

The flower bud (on the right) shows the corolla
emerging from the calyx, while the flower
bud in the center has a closed calyx,
and so is a younger bud.

Plant grown in Connecticut USA
from seeds collected in Peru, Mione 535

Figure 8, at right: Developmental Sequence: Flowers from left to right are about
a day older

Note how when a flower begins
to open the distal end of the corolla is not
recurved, but becomes
recurved.

Only the
flower on the right has
dehisced anthers
and copious red nectar.

Units along the top of photo are mm.

Flowers on glass to prevent shadow,
photo by T. Mione

Figure 9. Fruit

Mione, Leiva & Yacher 641

Photo taken in Peru by T. Mione

More photos of this species can be seen
in Sagástegui Alva et al. (2003, page 228).

 

Figure 10. Ventral view of anther on left. Dorsal (outer) view on right. Units on right are mm. Photo by T. Mione of anthers from a plant grown outdoors summer and fall of 2017, Mione et al. 867.

 

 

Nectar volumes and sugar concentrations for J. ventricosa.

mm of nectar in microcapillary tube microliters of nectar dilution with water if any raw refractometer reading if applicable Sugar concentration Date Temperature Refractometer Previous Nectar Removal* Humidity
178 68.5 no dilution   11.3 14 September 2017 26 C Milwaukee MA871 not by a person 60%
88 33.9 1:1 6.0 12 14 September 2017 26 C Milwaukee MA871 not by a person 60%
225 86.6 no dilution   10.8 14 September 2017 26 C Milwaukee MA871 not by a person 60%
125 48.1 1:1 dilution 5.5 11 14 September 2017 26 C Milwaukee MA871 not by a person 60%
145 55.8 no dilution   11.1 14 September 2017 26 C Milwaukee MA871 not by a person 60%
151 58.1 no dilution   11 28 October 2017 16 C Bellingham & Stanley 45-81 not by a person not recorded

Each row in the above table contains data for one flower, harvested from a plant grown outdoors in Connecticut.
*Given that the plants were grown outdoors, it is possible that nectar was removed by a floral visitor prior to this measurement. Floral visitors/pollinators had not been excluded.
Nectar appeared orange to light-orange in the microcapillary tubes.
Flowers were of unknown age but were all in the hermaphroditic phase and thus none of the flowers sampled were day 1 (pistillate-phase) flowers.
Mione et al. 867
The plant was in a pot that was burried about 4/5 in the ground. By the dates these measurements were made, the plant almost certainly rooted through the bottom of its pot into the ground.  The plant was irrigated on a daily schedule all summer, but did not grow well in the summer heat.