Jaltomata viridiflora (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth) M. Nee & Mione
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador
revised Nov 2016  

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.
Brittonia 45(2): 138-145. 1993.
Link to the Jaltomata of Ecuador
Link to the Jaltomata of Colombia / Venezuela
Link to local names of Jaltomata species including this one
Link to chromosome count
Figures 1 and 2. Jaltomata viridiflora visited by a rufous-tailed hummingbird. Photo by and generously contributed by Jack Lamb.
Figure 3, above. Flower of Jaltomata viridiflora. Note that corolla lobes and lobules alternate, totalling 10, and that all anthers have dehisced, and the stigma (green) is to immediate left of the dehisced anthers. Photo by Eric J. Tepe in Ecuador, Tepe 2931
Figure 4, above. Flower of Jaltomata viridiflora. Photo by Stephen Stern in Ecuador, Stern 345
Figure 5, above. Flower (all anthers have dehisced). Photo by Eric J. Tepe in Ecuador, Tepe 2931

Figure 6

Ripe fruits of
Jaltomata
viridiflora
are orange.

 

 

 

Mione
458
or 459 or 460,
photo by
Thomas Mione
in Ecuador.

 

 

Taxonomy
Atropa viridiflora Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. gen. sp. 3: 11, t. 196. 1818.   Type: COLOMBIA.   Crescit in convalli Guaitarensi, inter urbem Pasto et Chilanquer, Humboldt & Bonpland 2175 (HOLOTYPE: P!; ISOTYPE: B destroyed, photo of B specimen, F neg. 2531 at GH! and NY!).  
Hebecladus viridiflorus
(H.B.K.) Miers, London J. Bot. 4: 321. 1845.    
Hebecladus lanceolatus Miers, London J. Bot. 4: 323. 1845.   Type: ECUADOR. Hacienda de Pinantura, prope Quito, Hartweg 1301 (HOLOTYPE: K!; ISOTYPE: LD!).
Hebecladus mollis Miers, London J. Bot. 7: 352, t . 33. 1848.   Type: COLOMBIA. Plages de Combayma, Goudot s.n. (HOLOTYPE: K!).   The original illustration is shown below as Figure 14. The seemingly distinctive toothed leaf margin of this holotype was seen on plants also having entire leaves, which are characteristic of the isotype of Atropa viridiflora.
Atropa flexuosa may also be a synonym of this species (see Tropicos, http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast).

 

Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Shrub to 2 m high, sometimes scandent   
Branches, young
velutinous to less commonly puberulent with multicellular, uniseriate, unbranched finger hairs, sometimes to mostly gland-tipped    
older
   
Leaves, size
   
shape entire to toothed; ovate to ovate-lanceolate, the apex acuminate  
hairs velutinous to less commonly puberulent with multicellular, uniseriate, unbranched finger hairs, sometimes to mostly gland-tipped    
petiole    
Inflorescence
1- 4 flowered  
peduncle
to 4.4 cm,
puberulent to somewhat densely hairy, the hairs finger shaped and probably gland-tipped
3, 4
pedicel
to 1.2 cm,
sparsely hairy to velutinous, the hairs finger-shaped, and at least some seem gland-tipped
3, 4, 8, 10
Calyx at flowering
green to purple 1, 3, 4
shape / position when flowering rotate,
sometimes very broadly concave approaching rotate
1,2,3,4
at fruit maturity   10
Corolla color
pale-green, less commonly white or pale yellow 1,2,3,4,5
shape and size
urceolate-tubular, the tube 9.5 - 20 mm long, the base of the tube 9 mm (perpendicular to tube length), the limb planar, 1.2 to 2.0 cm across depending on how the flower was pressed (measurements made on pressed specimens) 1,2,3,4,5
lobes / lobules
10 total: the five larger lobes alternate with five smaller lobules, all flaring (not recurved) 1,2,3,4,5
hairs
   
Stamen length including anther
17 - 26 mm  
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) 0 - 8 mm
the stamens elongating after the flower opens
 
seems to be no I carefull rehydrated and then dissected a flower of Spooner 5020 and I can't see radial thickenings.
base expanded laterally? yes 16
filaments glabrous  
anther color yellow  
anther size 1.7 - 2.2 mm  
anther mucronate/mucronulate no Spooner et al. 5020
insertion of filament into anther into bottom of anther however more of distal end of filament shows in ventral view than in dorsal view 11
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen quantity per flower    
pollen grain size    
corona no  
Stigma
shallowly bilobed Spooner et al. 5020
Style
   
Ovary
   
Ovules per ovary
   
Nectar
translucent  
Herkogamy Stigma and anthers sometimes differing in height by up to 5 mm, either may be exserted.  
Protogyny    
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange, 13-19 mm diam., 10-12 mm high
Fruits not eaten (Hawkes 422, Mione 458).
"reddish" on Fosberg 20426
Seeds per fruit
   
Seed Size
   
Chromosome number
n = 12 Heiser, 1963
Growability in Connecticut, USA
   
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
   
Self-Compatible?
   
Seed Germination
   
Ratio of pollen to ovules
   
Character Description of Jaltomata viridiflora Figures on this web page

The photos shown in Sagástegui A. et al. (2003, page 229) are labeled as J. viridiflora but are actually J. incahuasina.

    

Distribution & Habitat: Andes of Western Venezuela through Ecuador, 2,500-3,400 m.   Subparamo and disturbed habitats.

    

Venezuela specimens, Jaltomata viridiflora
  Locality altitude m habitat collector & number date of collection data entry
Mérida trail leading from La Negrita to the Boquerón of the Quebrada de las Cañas
2,990-3,300
Páramo dominated by Espeletia shultzii J. L. Luteyn et al. 6122 (NY, US) 31 Oct 1978 Sep 2010
 


Ecuador specimens, Jaltomata viridiflora
Province Locality altitude m habitat collector & number date of collection data entry
Imbabura 0°12'53.0'' N, 78°20'58.1'' W
3125
no data
E.J. Tepe et al. 3066 27 Feb 2011
Sep 2011
Pichincha Cantón: Quito. Parroquia: Nono. Reserva Yanacocha (Fundanción de Conservación Jocotoco). 0 7' 0" S, 78 35' 10" W
3500
montane cloud forest J. L. Clark et al. 7340 11 Mar 2003
Sep 2010
Pichincha Above the NW part of Quito on road to Nono, Santa Isabel-Cotocollao, 0 06' 17" S, 78 31' 30" W 3250 steep roadside bank L. Bohs et al. 3142 (UT) 4 Mar 2003 Nov 2016
Napo 0°22'24.5'' S, 78°09'59.9'' W
3350-3450
no data
E.J. Tepe et al. 2931 10 Feb 2011
Sep 2011
Tungurahua Road between El Triunfo and Patate, 1 18'54" S, 78 24'47" W 2600 roadside bank L. Bohs et al. 3128 (UT) 26 Feb 2003 Nov 2016


Colombia specimens, Jaltomata viridiflora
Department Locality altitude m habitat collector & number date of collection data entry
Departamento del Valle Cordillera Occidental, Los Farallones, extremo N, vertiente oriental, entre Alto del Buey y Las Cascadas
3250 - 3050
bosques J. Cuatrecasas 18103 (US) 13 Oct 1944
Aug 2010
Cundinamarca Western slope of the Cordillera, Vereda de San Antonio on the road to La Mesa
2600
forest J. Cuatrecasas 26729 (US) 26 Jan 1965
Aug 2010
Cundinamarca Cordillera Oriental, Vertiente Oriental. Entre Une y Fosca
3000-3200
no data H. García-Barriga & R. Jaramillo M. 20514 14 Feb 1974
Sep 2010
Nariño Llano Grande, W of Ipiales, near Lago Cumbal 3250 in grassland on slope R. Castillo, R. Pineda, L. López & D. M. Spooner 1218 8 July 1992
Jan 2013

 

Old Method of Listing Specimens, to be converted to table above:

Venezuela . MÉRIDA: Rangel, Parte baja de la cañada de La Mucuchache, la quebrada homónima, afluente del río Chama, 3,400-3,300 m, L. Ruíz-Terán & M. Lopez-Figueiras 287 (MERF);

COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Municipio Jardín, Alto de Ventanas, 2,400-2,800 m, R. Callejas et al. 3917 (NY); BOYACA: hacienda Retacuba, 3,600 m, P. J. Grubb et al. 244 (K, US); CALDAS: above Salento, path to Romerales, Amarguras, Finca Sta. Inés, 3,200 m, J. G . Hawkes 422 (K); NARIÑO: N end of Laguna de la Cocha, weed on cultivated slopes, 2,850 m, F. R. Fosberg 20426 (NY); SANTANDER: quebrada de Pais, N of La Baja, ca. 3,200 m, E. P. Killip & A. C. Smith 18764 (GH, NY); Without locality, 2,300 m,  M. KØie 5258 (C).  

ECUADOR. AZUAY: Nudo de Portete, pass between headwaters of the ríos Tarqui and Giron, 2,744 m, W. H. Camp E-2181 (NY); CARCHI: common along Tulcán-El Carmelo road, 3,290 m, T. Mione & C. McQueen 458 & 459 (CONN), and direct (dirt) road between Tulcán and El Angel, 3,300 m, 460 (CONN); Tulcán-Pun road bank, 3,260 m, Y. Mexia 7586 (K); COTOPAXI: 12.7 km from gasoline station at N end of Pilalo, on rd to La Mana, 3,180 m, D. Spooner et al. 5091 (herbarium of T. Mione); PICHINCHA: declive oriental del Volcán Pichincha, near summit of Cruz Loma, 3,400 m, J. A. Steyermark 52383 (NY); NAPO: 10 km E of Papallacta on road to Baeza, 2,850 m, L. Holm-Nielsen et al. 6814 (NY); C HIBORAZO-CAÑAR B ORDER: Between Sta. Rosa and Joyagshi, 2,637 m, W. H. Camp E-4014 (NY).

 

Figure 7.

I longitudinally ripped away part of the corolla.

Note undehisced anthers (yellow), ovary with basal disk,
and conspicuous corolla lobules.



Ecuador.


Mione 458 or 459 or 460, photo by Thomas Mione.
The photo is blurry because it was taken
during my first collecting trip to Latin America,
when I had only a screw-on macro lens.
.

Figure 8, above. Abaxial face of calyx (purple), and leaves. Photo by Eric J. Tepe in Ecuador, Tepe 2931
Figure 9, above. Unripe fruits. Photo by Eric J. Tepe in Ecuador, Tepe 2931
Figure 10. Pressed calyx, abaxial face, probably at fruit maturity, Jaltomata viridiflora, vertical units in upper right are mm, R. Castillo, R. Pineda, L. López & D. M. Spooner 1218, photo by Thomas Mione. Figure 11. Anthers of Jaltomata viridiflora, ventral view on left, dorsal view on right. Flower from a pressed specimen was rehydrated (anthers are yellow normally). Units along bottom are mm. Spooner et al. 5020, photo by Thomas Mione.
Figure 12. Jaltomata viridiflora. This plant is in the moist forest along the dirt road at the back side of Laguna Papallacta, ca. 3200m, without collection number because collection permits didn't extend to Napo. Photo by Stacey D. Smith.
Figure 13. Jaltomata viridiflora. This plant is in the moist forest along the dirt road at the back side of Laguna Papallacta, ca. 3200 m, without collection number because collection permits didn't extend to Napo. Photo by Stacey D. Smith.
Figure 14. Jaltomata viridiflora. This plant is in the moist forest along the dirt road at the back side of Laguna Papallacta, ca. 3200 m, without collection number because collection permits didn't extend to Napo. Photo by Stacey D. Smith.

 

Figure 15, above. Figure 16, above.
Figure 17, above. Photo of the Paris (type) specimen of Jaltomata viridiflora, photo by T. M. taken in April of 2004 Figure 18. isotype (LD) of Hebecladus lanceolatus Miers,
photo by T. M. taken December 2004.

Figure 19.

Hebecladus mollis is a
synonym of
Jaltomata viridiflora.

 

Seed Germination, Jaltomata viridiflora
Seeds stored in the refrigerator for years and then planted on moist potting mix showed the first above-ground signs of germination 15 and 16 days after being sown. A plug-in germination mat (warm) was under the cups in which the seeds were sown. Seeds of collection Mione 458 were collected 28 December 1989, sown 12 April 2007 with first germination 28 April 2007. Seeds of collection Mione 460 were collected 29 December 1989, sown on 12 April 2007 with first germination on 27 April 2007.

 

Link to Jaltomata homepage

The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America.