Vol. III, Issue 4 (Fall, 1996): Focus on Cameroon

Table of contents

Editorial: Focus on Cameroon

Chief Gani Fawehinmi, Nigeria's most famous human rights lawyer, was arrested on 30th January 1996, and since then has been incacerated in Bauchi, Nigeria without access to medical care or family. He is suffering from acute malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia. Fawehinmi joins the ranks of Beko Ransome-Kuti, Femi Falana, Frank Kokori, Shehu Sani, Chris Anyanwu and other brave and valiant heroes who have dared to speak out against forms of harassment and injustice under the Abacha regime. He is a veteran in the struggle against human rights violations and his distinguished career spans three decades. In this issue of AfricaUpdate, Funso Aiyejina, formerly of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, honors the valiant warrior, Gani Fawehinmi. Generally though, this issue focuses on Cameroon, one of the four countries which share a border with Nigeria.

In keeping with our analysis of multiparty democracy, a subject which was the focus of the previous issue of AfricaUpdate we briefly look at Cameroon. Dr. Elvis Ngolle Ngolle of the University of Yaounde, Cameroon, reflects on the democratic process under "the New Deal" and the post-1982 era, with particular reference to the last few years and what he refers to as the "second phase", as this relates to multipartism. Ngolle lists some problems associated with the process and considers most of these as characteristic of "developing" countries. As the U.S. 1996 election campaign has shown, however, multipartism is not without its problems in the so-called "developed" countries in terms of fraudulent campaign funding, lack of serious debate, incivility, and low voter turn-out. We have included in this issue the final instalment of Molomo's analysis of multipartism in Botswana. We have also included information about some recent books on Cameroon with focus on the Bakweri Kingdom and contact with Portuguese, Dutch, British and German colonial agents. From Cameroon itself two recent works stand out: Essomba's recent text in honor of the distinguished Senegalese egyptologist and physicist, Cheik Anta Diop and Jean-Pierre Bekolo's "Quartier Mozart", a jewel of indigenous African cinema. New York City's African Burial Ground is the subject of discussion by Dr. Warren Perry. Dr. Perry examines the historical background and significance of the project and the major areas of importance to historians of Africa and the African diaspora. He identifies indicators of the flagrant abuse of human rights in the four hundred excavated Ancestral African remains. We express our thanks to all the contributors of this issue of AfricaUpdate.

Gloria Emeagwali - Chief Editor

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by Dr. Funso Aiyejina

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad

Legion are the names by which they call him to facilitate the hanging of his dream . ..

Not him; he has refused to alter his inflection in the manner of parrots with no conviction .. .

Not him; he has refused to change his persuasion to please our nation's many apostles of caution:

those who would rather he sought refuge in dark cracks like cockroaches surprised in their midnight tracks.

He has refused to temper his instincts about the General: the spinner of webs who has donated his name and liberal

image towards the beautification of squares hitherto named for dead-and-buried ancestors.

He has refused to rationalise in measured phrases in fine prints and reprints, in limited editions

like men lacking the regenerative will of porcupines: the crown princes in the underbelly of our forests:

merchants with limitless supplies of battle quills. Ajantala: fish bone lodged across gluttonous throats

if they swallow you, they swallow a pestle and shall know no rest, standing or lying.

Ajanaku: the elephant sighs in distant farms and kills his detractors in the safety of their homes.

Ogbodogbodo, Ajagunmolu: grandchild of Ifa valiant warrior, custodian of Ogun's power .. .

wherever you may be, I salute you. I salute courage.

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Multiparty Democracy in Cameroon

By Dr. Elvis Ngolle Ngolle

Director of Studies, I.R.I.C., University of Yaounde II, Cameroon

With the advent of the New Deal administration in 1982, Cameroon seemed relieved of a burden. A commentator described the moment in these terms, "the new regime of president Biya has dramatically reversed the trend and given the future of the private press a new hope.Cameroonians now breathe a new air of freedom which they never had for more than twenty years of Ahidjo rule."

I. The Democratic Process Under the New Deal

As proposed in the initial declarations of Biya's administration, liberalization and democratization were to be the hallmarks of the New Deal program of government. To the successor President himself, liberalization involved the restoration of public freedoms, in particular, freedom of thought and speech. Democratization meant the introduction of pluralism into national political life.

This process included elections based on free choice and multiple candidacies. The questions that have to be asked are, What made this second wave of democratic politics different from the pre-1966 first wave or was there no difference? What factors engendered this second wave? What are the dimensions of the process? What are the problems? What are the future prospects? These are the questions that form the thrust of the rest of this paper.

The first and second waves of democratic politics in Cameroon were different in at least three respects. While the first was fragmentary in terms of the federation, the second was cohesive and national in character. In the first wave the political parties were regional parties, whereas in the second wave the political parties are to a large extent national parties. In the first wave there were three constitutions at play; in the second wave therei s only one single constitution at play. In the first wave the form of the state was a federation, whereas in the second wave,the form of state is a unitary republic. What is common to both waves is the existence of competing freely formed political parties engaging in pluralistic debate and electoral competition with a multiplicity of candidates. This common denominator of the democratic process in the two eras fits well into the democratic concept as defined in democratic theory. The essential quality being that it is a process based on the rule of law, elected representative government, civil rights, majority rule, protection of minorities, separation of powers and popular sovereignty. In such a process, the elected government is responsive to the people and the people possess the liberty to make a choice. The structure and composition of the government exists in an atmosphere of civility and order. In this context, multipartism denotes the existence and functioning of a multiplicity of political parties, all competing for public office on the basis of freedom of choice and within formal rules of law.

II. The Dynamics of the Post-1982 Process

The post-1982 democratic process proceeded along two wave-lengths or two speeds. The first wave length or speed involved preparing the then single ruling party for multiparty competition. This phase involved introducing multiple candidacies within the party in elections for local party officials as early as 1983. The phase also involved reorganizing and transforming the CNU into the CPDM as a way of emphasizing the democratic resolve of the New Deal. The minds of militants and party barons were also stimulated to prepare for competition with other parties. This phase lasted till 1990 when the law on multipartism was passed by the National Assembly opening up the political landscape to a multitude of freely formed political parties and associations all vying for political expression and public office. In the second phase multipartism took shape, and on occasion it seemed unmanageable. This phase also marked the proliferation of the private media which violently took on the government and the ruling party in its commentaries.These activities were coupled with sometimes violent social movements all claiming to express their freedom of speech and expression.These movements nearly rendered the entire national life dysfunctional but for the inter vention of forces of law and order and appeals from wise politicians of political parties that saw no value in political radicalism. After a year or more of radical political expression, three major developments marked the second phase of the process: March 1992 legislative elections, October 1992 presidential elections of , and the November 1991 Tripartite meeting. These events were all characterized by multiparty participation culminating in the formation of the current Coalition Governmentand Multiparty National assembly. With the ongoing constitutional talks there seems to be ample evidence to suggest that the second phase of the post-1982 process would result in an outcome that would make multipartism a permanent and vital feature of the democratic process in Cameroon.

III.Problems Associated with Multipartism

Multipartism in the democratic process has generally tended to be associated with tensions,

conflicts, blocages and sometimes violence on the part of some actors and political parties. This is more frequent in societies in which democratic tradition has not yet taken root in terms of tolerance, civility, courtesy, rationalization of choices of candidates and issues. It is also more frequent where socioeconomic conditions are inadequate to sustain free discussion and tolerance.Such conditions include economic problems, low literacy, poori nfrastructure, low rate of urbanization, etc. Problems associated with multipartism as a form of democratic expression in Cameroon have reflected this general developing country pattern. Other problems that are related to the former category are the tendency to have parchochial, regionally-based or "tribal" parties, the tendency to violate the law out of ignorance or out of passion, the tendency to vote without due rationalization of issues or candidates, the tendency to engage in vote rigging and intimidation tactics, the tendency to deny respect for other parties and the tendency to refuse electoral outcomes that are unfavorable. This is true for Cameron and elsewhere. Another important problem that has characterized multipartism in Cameroon and most of the Third World is the confusion that has often been manifested by parties of the opposition in terms of their role in the democratic process and their objectives as political actors. As the Cameroonian experience has shown, the party or parties that have not become part of the majority coalition or the majority party have tended to function as if they were equal to the party or parties in power in terms of their role in the political process. They have also limited their objective to the sole goal of attaining a position of power. Not only has this tendency hurt some parties in the democratic process, but they have denied themselves the opportunity to engage in other activities for which political parties play a vital role. These activities include educating the electorate on burning issues, raising and shaping issues in an attempt to mold public opinion positively, serving as a moderating influence on the political process and preparing for future electoral contests. As the Cameroonian experience has shown, the tendency for some parties has been to refuse results and claim that nothing of consequence took place. For some political parties, their awarenessof the role of the political party in the democratic process seems quite high, and for these the prospects seem good that they will contribute enormously to the sustenance of not only multipartism, but also of the democratic process. Return to Table of Contents

African Cinema:

Notes on Quartier Mozart

By Jean Silvia, Student at C.C.S.U.

Quartier Mozart takes place in Yaound‚, the capital of Cameroon,which is located in the western region of Africa. Like the film's"Queen of the Hood," there are many African women who have become aware of their importance and who hold strong views.These women have a desire to express their views and several have succeeded over the last forty or so years in getting their voices heard through their literature. I do not believe that Quartier Mozart is just a film version of the "narrative of victimology." I don't see it as a portrayal of weak, whining, complaining women who are victims. I see it as a triumph for all women who seek a more positive-stronger image in society. Because the film is done with a sense of humor, it gives both men and women a chance to view it with less gender bias than if it was a drama with very serious dialogue. I believe the humor relaxes you and allows you to have a more open mind towards the views of the opposite sex. Quartier Mozart's director, Jean-Pierre Bekolo, addresses a serious issue - gender roles, with a humorous approach, making his film more accessible to both male and female audiences.

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Cameroon Studies

General editors: E. M. Chilver, Shirley Ardener and Ian Fowler

Queen Elizabeth House, International Development Centre, Universityof Oxford

This new series features historical and anthropological works on Cameroon - Africa in microcosm. Its linguistic, cultural and ecological diversity, and its historical experience of the different German, French and British regimes, provide material pertinent to the wider continent. The aim is to pool in one series the best of new works of contemporary scholars and selected reissues of classic ethnographic texts and translations of early German exploration and missiological literature

Volume I


Studies in the History of the Cameroon Coast 1500-1970

Edwin Ardener

Edited and with an Introduction by Shirley Ardener, Centre for Cross-Cultural Research on Women, Oxford

The Bakweri people of Mount Cameroon, which is an active volcano on the coast of West Africa a few degrees north of the equator,have had a varied and at times exciting history which has brought them not only into contact with other West African peoples, but with merchants, missionaries, soldiers and administrators from Portugal, Holland, England, Jamaica, Sweden, Germany and more recently France. Edwin Ardener, the distinguished social anthropologist, spoke their language and wrote a number of studies on the culture and history of the Bakweri kingdom. Some unpublished writings, and some published but now out of print materials are here brought together for the first time. The book covers the early contacts with the Portuguese and Dutch from the sixteenth century, the arrival of the missionaries in the nineteenth century, the dramatic defeat of the first German punitive expedition, the subsequent establishment by the Germans of the plantation system, the BritishTrusteeship period, and the reunified Republic of Cameroon to 1970.

June 400 pages - photos, maps, bibliog.

ISBN 1-57818-929-0 . hardback . pub. price

Volume 2


Intersections between History and Anthropology in Cameroon

Edited by Ian Fowler, School of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University and Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, and David Zeitlyn, Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Eliot College, University of Kent

Cameroon is characterized by an extraordinary geographical, cultural, and linguistic diversity. This collection of essays by eminent historians and anthropologists summarizes three generations of research in Cameroon that began with the collaboration of Phyllis Kaberry and E. M. Chilver soon after the Second World War and continues to this day. The idea for this book arose from a concern to recognize the continuing influence of E. M. Chilver on a wide variety of social, historical, political and economic studies.The result is a volume with a broad historical scope yet one that also focuses on major contemporary theoretical issues such as the meaning and construction of ethnic identities and the anthropological study of historical processes. June . 208 pages . photos, maps,bibliog.

ISBN 1-57181-859-6 . h/bk

ISBN 1-57181-926-6 . p/bk.

History/Anthropology, African Studies/Material Culture

Published by Berghahn Books

Fax (401) 521-0046

Email: berghahnbk@aol.com

A new book on Chiekh Anta Diop

Professor Joseph Marie Essomba of the Department of History, University of Yaounde, Cameroon,

recently published a text on the famous Senegalese Egyptologist and physicist, Cheikh Anta Diop, who died ten years ago this year.The text consists of a variety of speeches public lectures and papers of the controversial scholar who in 1954 defended a thesis that examined African contributions to Greece and identified the ancient Egyptians as being predominantly Black African. A few months ago a colloqium on his work and achievement was held in Dakar, Senegal. The University of Dakar, Senegal, his birthplace, was named after him. Essomba's book also contains an address delivered at the Yaounde Congress Center, Cameroon, by Cheikh Anta Diopa month before his death, in February 7th 1986.


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Africa and the net

by Haines Brown, C.C.S.U.

There have been a number of initiatives this year to promote African telecommunication development policies that aim to ensure maximal economic returns and which therefore marginalize

social considerations. Howard University and the UN DevelopmentProgram (UNDP) held an international conference on the "Privatization of Telecommunications and Information Systems in Africa and the Caribbean" on March 12-15, 1996. Howard TISAC-96was in response to the Clinton Administration's commitment to building the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) and a prelude to the G-7 Conference on the Information Society held on May13-15 in Johannesburg.The UNDP Regional Project (RAF/96/002: Support to Development of Internet Services in the Sub-Sahara Africa), in conjunction with the World Bank and USAID, brought privatization requirements to bear at the Internet Conference held on 8-10 October in Guinea-Bissau. Represented there were Guinea-Conakry,Senegal, Cape-Verde, Mali and Mauritania. Meanwhile, the UN System-WideSpecial Initiative on Africa is joining with USAID to invest $25 million to enable Africa to catch up to world telecommuncation standards. "The perception of African countries has been that our problems are basic; why should we think of electronic-mail when we do not have electricity, when we do not have roads," explained Luis Honwana, resident representative of the UNESCO in South Africa. "The attitude has been that it is a waste of resources to try and be in sync with the most advanced countries, yet information is vital and accelerates the development process."

The UN Economic Commission of Africa (ECA) and the World Bank are re-assessing their strategy for Africa and will prioritise information technology. At the forefront of this is InfoDev, the Bank's global intiative to facilitate developing countries access to the information superhighway. UNESCO is promoting its Intergovernmental Informatics Program with the International Telecommunications Union and the ECA to improve informatics. The program urges policy "reforms" that encourage private initiatives, deregulate telecommunications and set up the infrastructure for full Internet connectivity in pilot countries. Twenty countries are to participate in the $11.5 million project, and so far, Egypt, Senegal and South Africa have pledged to take a leading role and will sit on the UN initiative's steering committee. Another twenty countries will come under a similar initiative expected to be approved by the US Agency for International Development(USAID). The USAID's AfricaLink program focuses on the development of e-mail facilities within the context of existing infrastructural and regulatory environments so that outside capital investmentis protected from any publically owned and subsidized resources.

That these policies could work to the advantage of the urban middle class and further widen the gap between them and the rural masses is well recognized. "The challenge is that once the infrastructure is in place in Africa, it is not confined to multinational corporations in urban areas," notes Anriette Esterhuysen, of SANGONeT, a Johannesburg- based organisation which provides e-mail and Internet access to development-oriented NGOs in southern Africa.

For electronic connectivity with Africa: http://www.earth.org/~lips/Africa.html

Norwegian Council for Africa resource links: http://www.africaindex.africainfo.no/

UN FAO and Univ. Guelph Dept. Rural Extension Studies report,

"The Internet and Rural Development:" http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/CDdirect/CDDO/intro.htm

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New York City's African Burial Ground

by Dr. Warren Perry, Anthropology Department, C.C.S.U.


The African Burial Ground is a five-to-six acre site located in New York City. Human remains were accidently discovered by construction crews laying the foundations for a federal ofiice building in 1991. After a protracted struggle between the African-descendant community and the Government Service Agency over control ofthe burial ground and the remains from 1991 to 1993 the excavations were halted. The 400 plus excavated African ancestral remains were shipped to the Cobb Biological Anthropology Laboratory at Howard University for analyses, and the African Burial Ground attained landmark status

Historical Background

The first African captives arrived in Dutch New Amsterdam in1626 from West and Central Africa and later from Caribbean plantations.In 1664 when the British colonized New Amsterdam, Africans were40% of the population. New York State was the next to last northerncolony to abolish slavery in 1799, but the law was so ineffectualthat New York had to emancipate Africans again in 1827.

Significance of the African Burial Ground

The African Burial Ground is unique by virtue of its size, ageand location. To date, it is the oldest excavated African burial ground with the largest skeletal sample to be scientifically examinedin the United States. The cemetery, its skeletal remains andthe ancestors possessions are the only material evidence so far recovered of the life and labor of the first generation of Africans in New York City. This project affords the opportunity to tie theory and practice by detailing how the African American descendent community, buoyed by outrage, engaged in a power struggle for dignity and respect and seized intellectual power. They demanded that if science was to give voice to the ancestors, African and African-American scholars, students and institutions had to be involved in all facets of the project. Questions of who gives voice to the past, who defines the problems, and how they are analyzed and interpreted are matters of critical social importance.The African Burial Ground project will for the first time represent a voice of African descendants analyzing and interpreting the scientific materials. The project involves archaeological anthropologists, soil scientists, conservators, historians, sociocultural anthropologists, biological anthropologists, geneticists, art historians, and architects. Scholars involved in the project are from the US and Africa, with expertise in all areas of the Africa diaspora. Involvement of African scholars is particularly significant at a time when African American history is marginalized, and/or distorted by colonial depictions of Africans.

The interdisciplinary nature of the research project provides an opportunity to generate new and different kinds of information,while contributing to methodological developments for future projects. It also allows for a more informed approach to questions of genetics, environments, demography, epidemiology, nutrition, social history, and cultural transmission and creation. Only through such research can we provide a holistic interpretation of the African diaspora. The final product- a report - will be a multidimensional contextual understanding of our African ancestors.

Questions of the Burial Ground Project

Researchers will focus on four major questions to help understand the African diaspora historically and globally.

1. What are the cultural and geographical origins of individuals interred in the African Burial Ground?

African biological and cultural identity of individuals can be ascertained through the analysis of multiple data sets to determine any overlap in geographical regions, biological communities, and cultural practices indicating probable parental populations. For example, a combination of skeletal measurements and DNA studies can determine specific biological affinities, and can aid in pinpointing the areas of origin for individuals buried at the site. Material culture studies involving archaeological collections of the same time period from the United States, Africa and the Caribbean, can inform on probable African "donor" populations. Ethno-graphic and historic documents can provide cultural explanations for dental modification patterns, and mortuary practices in "donor"societies. Finally, an analysis of dental chemistry can reveal mineral elements that indicate diet, and ground water. These are clues to location. Nitrogen content and carbon isotopes in bone collagen can also reveal something about diets, and thus the culture and climate in which they developed.

2. What were the living conditions and the physical quality of life for Africans enslaved in New York City during the colonial period? To evaluatethe changes in severity of life for African captives under European colonialism, we must not only consider the physical stress of captivity, but also the effects of urban residential and occupational segmentation, and a capitalist wage labor economy. Human bones reveal stress through hypertrophic muscle attachments and arthritic changes. Human biological responses to various natural toxins and industrial pollutants can also be investigated. Botanical samples from the stomachs, the thoracic region and the sacrum area can yield evidence of pathological organisms, parasite infestations and calcified organic material to inform on health, disease and nutrition.

3. What were the biological and cultural transformations taking place during the colonial period, that would influence the development of African American society? What traditions and physical characteristics remained unchanged? These questions involve the transition from African to African American culture.

4. What were the modes of resistance utilized by the African community to understand broader patterns of race relations in colonial New York City? For example, what is the skeletal and demographic evidence for specific practices of corporal punishment, physical restraint, and deterants to resistance - evidence of traumatic fractures related to violence like shackles, amputation,burning, parry fractures, and the like? How material culture and mortuary practices were retained or modified to symbolize resistance through the maintenance of African cultural practices and social customs? The fact that the African Burial Ground was the only place where African Americans were allowed to congregate in NYC is particularly significant. An understanding of the social uses of space will contribute to an understanding of the active role that Africans played in creating a social identity or identities in 18th century New York City.


In conclusion, it is archaeology that has provided physical evidence of racism and of resistance in 18th century New York City. That same archaeology has unified the African-American descendant community in its efforts to reclaim this sacred space and recapture its stolen legacy. The political and ideological struggle over control of the site, its contents and interpretation demonstrate that the significance of the site lies as much in the past as in the present. The knowledge and information provided by the African Burial Ground Project is essential for the spiritual, inspirational and political struggle of African people throughout the diaspora. The African Burial Ground Project is part of that struggle.

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Multiparty Democracy in Botswana (conclusion)

by Mpho G. Molomo

In conclusion, we wish to observe that choosing an electoral system involves a number of trade-offs because no one system is flawless. The best system, we think, is one that broadly addresses matters of democracy such as; accountability, representativeness, strong and effective leadership. Since, it would appear that no single model satisfies all the ingredients of democracy, it's probably better to opt for a hybrid system - one that combines the best of two worlds. Our considered opinion is that the SPS was probably appropriate for Botswana during the period immediatly after independence. This was a transitional period and as such Botswana needed a system that would cause greater stability. Now that Botswana has consolidated political power there is need to adopt a system which is more democratic such as the PR system. For purposes of Botswana we propose a "hybrid" system which, while adopting the PR model, retains the essential elements of the Westminster model, to make it more stable and accountable.The South African model of the PR system, at least on the part of the African National Congress (ANC), has tried to bridge the gap between the party and the electorate, created by the party list system's creation of regional party offices. In this way the party has, to a large extent, identified elected members with such offices as a way bringing the candidates closer to the people and as a result more accountable. Botswana can also draw from their lessons. In the final analysis, in all these debates we are only posturing pros and cons and not certainties.Every situation is a unique historical experience, so no one can with absolute certainty guarantee one system over another.

The theories that we are projecting with respect to the various electoral systems, in the absence of prescribing a blue print,which would spell doom, are to keep alive the "debate on the role of alternative democratic institutions in building stable,accountable, transparent and representative democracies.

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Student Commentary on "Feminism in Africa,"

a lecture by Prof. Molara Ogundipe-Leslie

delivered on November 5, 1996, Founders Hall, C.C.S.U.

I attended Professor Molara Ogundipe-Leslie's talk on African feminism. She is a fascinating and obviously brilliant woman.She discussed many of the topics from her book, Recreating Ourselves,that we had discussed in class. A few points she made that I found interesting and that stuck in my mind were that African men are still locked into gender roles and don't want African women to read the works of feminists who often challenge the traditional gender roles. A quote that I remember, ". . .people shouldn't completely disregard biological roles, but should not be constructed by them." I think I remembered her discussion on gender and sex roles so vividly because I agree with her position on them.

I was also interested in her discussions on violence, MarriedWomen Inc., and especially about how the government and military would be afraid if women stripped and showed their nakedness.I believe she said something like , "Men are afraid of the breasts from which they once fed."

The songs we sang together were fun and lightened up the tone.The story of the woman playwrite who wrote the songs was sad and very touching. I was very glad that we had the opportunity to have a question and answer period with her on a smaller,more personal, level because she touched upon many issues she did not address in her talk. I was particularly glad she talked about the church, saying that some churches stand in the way of direct worship of God because they are structured institutions.I agree with her in that it is not necessary to attend church to worship a god. I'm pleased that I decided to attend the lecture and that I had the opportunity to talk with and learn from such a brilliant woman.

Cathy Prezelomiec

World Civilization (Hist. 121).

Having Molara Ogundipe-Leslie (the author of Recreating Ourselves) come to Central to discuss her book was a brilliant idea. Not only was the question and answer session informative, but I had a rare chance to actually understand the mind-set and intention of the author. I really enjoyed her willingness to discuss her work and her acceptance of criticism.

Shavonne Whittaker

World Civilization (Hist. 122).

On November 5th, 1996, Professor Molara Ogundipe-Leslie spoketo the students of CCSU at 2:00- 4:00 in Founders Hall. Her talk was focused on African Feminism of Nigerian women. She stated that women in that country believed in this saying, "What a woman can do, a man cannot do." Nigerian women do not compete with men; males are not seen as models by women. Ogundipealso talked about incest and how it is looked upon negatively.

Laverne Spyke

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Music From Africa

Tune to WFCS 107.7 FM. New Britain/Hartford
Saturdays, from 9-11 pm.

Dr. Gabriel Alungbe is your host

The Regional Editors of AfricaUpdate

Zenebworke Bissrat served for several years as Senior Management Expert at the Ethiopian Management Institute, Addis Ababa. She is at present associated with the CMRS, Ethiopian Catholic Church,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Maimouna Diallo is an economist and also a consultant to the United Nations Development Program. She resides in the Cte d'Ivoire,West Africa.

Julius Ihonvbere is a Professor of Government at the Universityof Texas, Austin. Among his books are Nigeria, the Politics ofAdjustment and Democracy (New Brunswick: Transaction, 1993) andThe Political Economy of Crisis and Underdevelopment in Africa(Lagos: Jad Press, 1989).

Paulus Gerdes is the Rector of Mozambique's Universidade Pedagogoco,Maputo, Mozambique. He has extensive publications on African mathematics and is the Chair of the Commission on the Historyof Mathematics in Africa.

Mosebjane Malatsi is a Senior Policy Analyst at the DevelopmentBank of Southern Africa, based in Johannesburg. He is a leadingmember of the Pan-African Congress.

Alfred Zack-Williams is from Sierra Leone. He teaches in theDepartment of Historical and Critical Studies at the Universityof Central Lancaster, UK. He is also a member of the Editorial Board of the Review of African Political Economy (ROAPE), UnitedKingdom.

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