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 Africa Update


 Vol. XV1. Issue 2.  (Spring 2009)

 From The Amistad to President Barack Obama


Table of Contents

Editorial: The Amistad Banquet and Lecture Series by Dr. Gloria Emeagwali  and  Dr. Olusegun Sogunro

The Sixth  Annual Amistad  Lecture by Professor  Paul Tiyambe Zeleza:  

'The African Struggle for Empowerment- From The Amistad to President Barack Obama'

‘From the AMISTAD to The White House’ An Impressionistic Water Color Painting by Artist Ansel Pitcairn


         Editorial: The Amistad Lecture and Banquet Series

The Amistad Lectures and Banquets are organized yearly by the Amistad Committee, an affiliate of the Africana Center, Central Connecticut State University.  The first lecture was held in November 2003. Subsequent lectures and banquets continue to be held in February as part of the Black History Month activities. The Amistad saga of 1839-1842, involved the illegal kidnapping of some Africans, especially from Sierra-Leone, their enslavement in the Americas (Cuba), a bloody revolt aboard the Amistad ship, and a trial in Connecticut which finally set free the captives.  History has it that the Amistad trial constituted the most famous landmark slavery case in the U.S. setting the stage for freedom, human rights, and social justice.

In commemoration of the Amistad events and its aftermath, the Amistad Committee is committed to organizing lectures that have implications in preserving and protecting the history and legacy of the Amistad; recognizing the resiliency of the captives aboard the Amistad ship; and fostering intellectual inquiry geared toward the preservation of human dignity.

The Amistad Lectures and Banquets continue to be supported (morally and financially) by the Africana Center, African American Studies, the Diversity Office and across the University by  the School of Education and Professional Studies, the School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Technology and Engineering, and  the School of Business as well as various departments, including Educational Leadership, English, History, Criminology, Political Science, Marriage and Counseling, and Teacher Education.

The Amistad Committee is co-Chaired by Dr. Olusegun Sogunro, Department of Educational Leadership and Dr. Gloria Emeagwali, Professor of History and African Studies, Department of History.  Other members are Dr. Katherine Harris, Adjunct Professor, Department of History; Dr. Beverley Johnson, Department of English; and Professor Walton Brown-Foster, Professor of Political Science, Department of Political Science.

         To date, the following lectures have been held:

February 24, 2008. Sixth Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University.

Lecture: “The African Struggle for Empowerment: From the AMISTAD to President Barack Obama.”

Distinguished Scholar: Professor Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, Liberal Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Professor Paul Tiyambe Zeleza is also President of the African Studies Association of the United States and Editor of the Zeleza Post (www.zeleza.com).

February 26, 2008Fifth Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University.

Lecture:  Breaking the Chains”

Distinguished Scholar: Activist Runoko Rashidi, World Traveler & Pan-Africanist Scholar, San Antonio, TX.


February 27, 2007.  Fourth Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University. 

Lecture:  “The Amistad Legacy:  Reflections on the Spaces of Colonization”

Distinguished Scholar:  Professor Toyin Falola, The Frances Higginbotham Nalle Centennial Professor of History, University of Texas, Austin, Texas.


February 28, 2006.  Third Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at the Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University. 

Lecture:  “The Amistad and Human Rights”

  Distinguished Scholar: Professor Amii Omara-Otunnu, D. Phil. (Oxon.), UNESCO Chair-holder in Comparative Human Rights, Executive Director, UConn-ANC Partnership, Professor of History, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.



February 3, 2005.  Second Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at the Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University.

Lecture: “Human Rights and the Challenge of Forging a New Social Consensus: Lessons from the Amistad Case”

Distinguished Scholar: Adetoun Olabisi Ilumoka, LLM, An activist Human Rights Lawyer, Principal Partner: AO Ilumoka and Associates Consultancy Services, Lagos, Nigeria; Visiting Scholar, Center for Africana Studies, CCSU; Formerly Visiting Scholar, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, Stanford University.


 November 14, 2003.  First Annual Amistad Lecture & Banquet held at the Founders Hall, Davidson Building and Constitution Room, Memorial Hall, Central Connecticut State University.

Lecture: “Amistad and Education in the African Diaspora”

  Distinguished Scholar: Professor Alfred B. Zack-Williams, Professor of Sociology, University of Central     Lancaster, United Kingdom and the president of the African Studies association of the U.K.


 We are pleased to present  the Sixth Amistad Lecture  in this issue of Africa Update.  Our distinguished speaker is the current  president of the African Studies Association of the United States,  Professor Paul Tiyambe Zeleza. To date Professor Zeleza has edited, authored and co-authored  twenty four books, including four text books and three novels, and over one hundred articles, forty three of which are chapters  in books.  His area of research includes Africa and the African Diaspora, African Migrations in a global context, and the global struggle for human rights. We should note that he has also contributed immensely to our understanding of the production of knowledge,and,epistemological issues related to African Studies. We have included the publications of Dr. Zeleza in this issue of Africa Update.

 Included in this issue of Africa Update is a water color painting  entitled “From the AMISTAD to the White House,” done primarily for this issue of Africa Update by Mr. Ansel Pitcairn, whose  art work  has been  exhibited at the  New York Public Library, The Museum of  Natural History  and most recently the Arsenal Gallery in Central Park, New York.  In his painting  Mr. Pitcairn celebrates the Sixth Annual Amistad Lecture and  the Inauguration of  the Forty Fourth President of the United States,  President  Barack Hussein  Obama.

Dr. Gloria Emeagwali, Chief  Editor, Africa Update  & Co-Chair, Amistad Committee, Central Connecticut State University with Dr. Olusegun Sogunro, Co- Chair, Amistad Committee, CCSU.

Return to Table of Contents


The African Struggle for Empowerment:

From The Amistad to Barack Obama

Paul Tiyambe Zeleza

Liberal Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor

Professor of African American Studies and History,

Head, Department of African American Studies

University of Illinois at Chicago

1231 University Hall, M/C 069, 601 South Morgan Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA

Honorary Professor, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

President, African Studies Association

Public Lecture specially prepared for presentation for the Sixth Amistad Lecture, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut, February 24, 2009.

In 1839, an incident took place that dramatized the historic injustices against African peoples and their heroic struggles for freedom. In 2009, another momentous event occurred in this long march to liberty in the Black Atlantic world. In the first instance, I am of course referring to the Amistad mutiny and in the second to the inauguration of President Barack Obama. Separated by 170 tumultuous years, the stories of the Amistad and   Barack Obama represent the protracted resistances by African peoples and Afro-descendants, to recapture their histories and humanity, so cruelly seized and denied by Europe through the barbarities of slavery, colonialism, and racism. 

In July 1839, a group of 53 Africans led by Sengbe Pieh, also known as Joseph Cinque, who had been captured near present-day Sierra Leone and brought to Havana revolted on a crooner called La Amistad against their captors who were taking them to Puerto Principe in east-central Cuba. The mutineers wanted to return to Africa, but the Spanish crew tricked them and after two months of meandering across the Atlantic, they ended up on Long Island where the ship was seized by the United States Navy. This was followed over the next several months by celebrated court cases on whether the Africans were slaves or not, and whether they should be returned to Cuba or to Africa. The U.S. Supreme Court finally ruled that they were not slaves under international law and on November 27, 1841, the 35 survivors boarded the ship Gentleman and sailed for Africa.

In July 2004, an obscure State Senator from Illinois, Barack Obama, delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. In November, he won a U.S. Senate seat, and a little over two years later, in February 2007, he declared his candidacy for the presidency of the United States. Long on audacity, few initially gave his campaign much hope, but as the grueling primary Democratic campaign rumbled on, his political stock rose and his chances moved from the realm of possibility to probability, especially following Super Tuesday, when he swept the electoral deck. In June 2008, he became the party’s presumptive nominee, and the country entered an unprecedented presidential contest between an African American and a European American. The rest is history: Obama won.       

The contrasts between the Amistad and Obama’s rise to the  U.S. presidency cannot be more striking. Amistad represented a struggle for exclusion from slave America,  Obama a struggle for inclusion in post-civil rights America. One was an indictment of slavery, the other a petition on the promises of civil rights. But there are also remarkable parallels. While the Amistad Africans regained their freedom, slavery in the United States continued for another two and half decades, followed by a century of legal segregation. Similarly, as Obama was ascending to the presidency, and other African American elites to positions of unparalleled privilege and power, persistent poverty and the destructive preschool-to-prison pipeline that have entrapped millions of African Americans and other minorities, remained as robust as ever.

If the voyages of Amistad encapsulated the perils of the modern triangular Atlantic world created out slavery, the phenomenon of Obama embodied the possibilities of contemporary trans-Atlantic Pan-Africanism, borne out of struggles for civil rights in America and independence in Africa. Barack Hussein Obama Sr., the new President’s father, was among the first group of Kenyan students who came to the United States as part of the airlift program organized by the renowned Kenyan nationalist leader, Tom Mboya, and then Senator John F. Kennedy, which provided scholarships to educate a new generation of professionals to run the postcolonial state. In a sense, then, President Obama was incubated, physically and politically, in the whirlwind of African decolonization and the American civil rights movement. The road to his candidacy and eventual victory was paved by generations of struggles for civil rights. A President Obama is simply unthinkable without the struggles and sacrifices of a Dr. Martin Luther King and an Ella Baker. And the modern civil rights movement rolled from the legacies and lessons of previous movements going back to the pre-emancipation abolitionist movement in which Amistad was a cause célèbre.    

My argument is quite simple. I believe the two moments, the saga of Amistad and the age of Obama, are connected by the complex threads of separate and shared memories in the Pan-African world, from abolition to decolonization, civil rights to national independence. In between are all those highs and lows that we all know so well, or should know, in the struggles on both sides of the Atlantic for emancipation and empowerment, the tragedies and triumphs, dreams and duplicities, soaring hopes and sobering realities, the demanding daily grind of survival and agency in a harsh world of shifting systems of subjugation—slavery to segregation in the Diaspora, and, colonialism to neocolonialism on the continent.

It should be clear from my remarks that I think the Pan-African world, the world of Africa and its Diasporas, is intricately braided by ties of mutuality, by those complex, sometimes contradictory, and often changing solidarities of history, experiences, struggles, and aspirations. This explains why the Obama candidacy, and now presidency, has electrified the Pan-African world. For the remainder of this presentation I would like to focus on three issues, first, offer a broad outline of engagements between Africa and its Diasporas, second, examine the development and trajectories of Pan-Africanism, and finally, analyze the meaning and implications of the Obama phenomenon for the pan-African world. For the latter, I will share my observations written at critical junctures in Obama’s journey to the presidency.


Engagements between Africa and its Diasporas

The events associated with Amistad and Obama demonstrate that engagements between Africa and its Diasporas have been deeper and more diverse than is often realized. Given the complex ebbs and flows of history, for Africa itself and the host lands of the Diasporas, it stands to reason that the engagements between Africa and its Diasporas have been built and shaped by continuities, changes, and ruptures. The fluidity of these engagements is best captured by the notion of flow-that flows of several kinds and levels of intensity characterize the linkages between the homeland and the Diaspora. The Diaspora or the homeland can serve as a signifier for the other, subject to strategic manipulation. The flows include people, cultural practices, productive resources, organizations and movements, ideologies and ideas, images and representations. In short, we can isolate six major flows: demographic flows, cultural flows, economic flows, ideological flows, iconographic, and political flows.

In terms of demographic flows, Africa and the Americas have been permanently connected since the 16th century by the continuous flows of people in both directions. Amistad belongs to both the Africa-to-America and the back-to-Africa migrations. It is well to remember that the slave trade was a process that lasted four centuries. And since abolition, Africans from the continent and other diasporas locations such as Afro-Latin America have migrated in ever rising numbers. Obama is part of this new Diaspora in a country—the U.S.—and a region—the Atlantic—of ‘overlapping Diasporas’: Diasporas constituted out of multiple geographies, histories, and voyages. In 2007, there were an estimated 1.4 African born residents in the United States. The long history of reverse sail so dramatized by the Gentleman ship, includes the resettlement schemes in Sierra Leone and Liberia founded in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the 20th century, especially after independence, millions of people from the Diaspora have gone to Africa on temporary sojourns or permanently as traders, students and scholars, political leaders and rebels, religious seers and proselytizers, and tourists seeking fortune, knowledge, identity, salvation, or pleasure.

            Over the centuries, cultures in both the continent and the Diaspora changed and influenced each other, to varying degrees across time and space. This was a dynamic and dialogic exchange, not simply a derivative one between a primordial, static Africa and a modern, vibrant Diaspora. This suggests the need to recognize the enduring connections between Africa and its Diasporas; that the cultures of Africa and the Diaspora have all been subject to change, innovation, borrowing, and reconstruction; that they are all ‘hybrid,’ and that the cultural encounters between them have been and will continue to be multiple and multidimensional. We need to transcend the question of African cultural retentions and survivals in the Americas, to examine not only the traffic of cultural practices from the Atlantic Diasporas to various parts of Africa, but also the complex patterns and processes of current cultural exchanges through the media of contemporary globalization, from television and cinema to video and the Internet. The communication and circulation of cultural practices and paradigms between Africa and its Diasporas have encompassed religion, education, literature, art, and music, to mention a few. These flows have constituted, I would argue, an essential part of Africa’s modernities, globalization, transnationalism, and cosmopolitanism. 

Economics is of course at the heart of the Diaspora condition for both the historic and new Diasporas in so far as both were engendered by labor imperatives. Economic flows were obviously limited under slavery. In recent decades, flows of remittances and investment especially among the new Diasporas have grown. Indeed, currently Africa’s new Diasporas remit $40-$150 billion, more than all so-called foreign ‘aid-read loans and investment-to Africa combined, notwithstanding the glib claims of the mercy industrial complex fronted by celebrities like Bono, Madonna, and others who seek moral and public gravitas from African commiseration. In reverse, African-born residents in the United States make significant contributions to the U.S. economy and society, including African American communities. They comprise the country’s most educated population-in 2007, more than 40% of the 1.1 million African-born adults age 25 and older had a bachelor’s degree or higher compared to 26.9% for the foreign born population as a whole, and, 27.6% for the native born population. Among them is Kase Lawal whose company, Camac with sales of $1.5 billion in 2006, was listed by Black Enterprise Magazine as the country’s second largest black-owned industrial/service business. And now one of their offspring is President of the United States.

Ideological flows refer to the flows of ideas and ideologies that can be embodied in social and cultural movements and discursive paradigms, ranging from visionary philosophies and projects to transnational feminisms to literary movements in the African and Black worlds. Iconographic flows refer to images and visual representations of Africa, Africanness and blackness that are created, circulated, and consumed through art works and the media. Transatlantic artistic dialogue has been continuous and intensified over the last half century, sustained and reproduced by the travels of artists, a shared visual language, and invocations of cultural memories and artistic motifs. African American iconographic constructions of Diasporan identity and black modernity have been particularly influential, thanks in part to the global tentacles of the American state and capital, on whose corporate media and imperial wings they have been exported to the rest of the world. For their part, the new Diasporas have been simultaneously recycling old, and, reinventing new iconographies of Africa and Africaness. Examples include the Senegalese traders selling Afrocentricity, and the imports of Nollywood films by the new Diasporas hungry for modernist self-representation.

The political flows have been particularly crucial. Focus in the scholarly literature has centered on the role of the trans-Atlantic Pan-Africanist movement in engendering territorial nationalisms across Africa, and how these nationalisms, and the civil rights movement in the United States, reinforced each other. For the postcolonial and post civil rights era, the questions have centered on relations between states and civil society organizations in Africa, and countries with large African diaspora populations, how they have engaged in each other’s political processes and projects. I will have more to say on Pan-Africanism shortly. The Obama presidency brings the question of US-Africa relations, and more broadly between Africa and Euro-America  into particularly sharp relief.

Let me conclude this section by noting that through these flows and counter flows, contacts and memories between the Diasporas and the continent have been kept alive, and vibrant exchanges maintained. They have produced contrasting impacts on social groups, communities and nation-states both in the Diaspora and on the continent. They have shaped identities and representations of Africa and Africans, as well as self-perceptions by continental Africans and Diasporan Africans. So dense are some of the flows and counter-flows that in some domains, continental and diasporic issues are often difficult to disentangle. Indeed, one or the other, as circumstances change, may predominantly shape perspectives and debates on national or Pan-African issues.


The Development and Trajectories of Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism encompassed various political, cultural, and intellectual movements based on a series of shared presumptions and objectives. It was inspired by the desire to instill racial pride among African peoples on the continent and in the Diaspora, to achieve their self-determination from European domination, to promote solidarity among them, and to foster their social and economic regeneration. Thus, Pan-Africanism had two main objectives: first, to liberate Africans and the Diaspora from racial degradation, political oppression, and economic exploitation, second, to encourage unity or solidarity among African peoples in political, cultural, and economic matters. Pan-Africanist ideas and movements drew from the experiences of, and struggles, against slavery, colonialism and racism, as well as prevailing international ideologies and ideas. Pan-Africanism was gendered in the relative participation of men and women, and in its construction, as an imaginary that was primarily nationalist; nationalist imaginaries have historically tended to be masculinist.

The nationalists who led the movements for independence and civil rights almost invariably subscribed to some form of Pan-Africanism, to the notion of a shared, collective African or Black identity in opposition to European or white identity. There were several reasons for this. First, it reflected the over determination of race in the colonial and Diasporan worlds, the fact that in both, indeed globally, the ‘darker’ races were subordinated to the ‘lighter’ races. Second, the nationalists were linked through intricate institutional and ideological networks, for example, through education, participation in international political organizations and social movements, and the cultural intersections and traffic between Africa and the Diaspora. Third, the projects of nation-building and national inclusion were seen both as confined to, and transcending, the colonial and national borders. But the internal demands of citizenship later proved more pressing and enduring than those of Pan-African solidarity.

In analyses of transatlantic Pan-Africanism, pride of place has gone to the Pan-African congresses associated with the great African American scholar-activist, W. E. B. Dubois, who famously declared that the ‘problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.’ Between 1900 and 1945, five Pan-African congresses were held in Europe attended by delegates from the continent and the Diaspora. The early congresses called for increasingly substantial colonial reforms, while the 1945 Manchester congress, the last to be held outside the continent, categorically demanded  independence for African and Caribbean colonies. There were of course other movements besides the Dubosian congresses, most prominently Marcus Garvey’s conventions, coalesced around the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which at its height became the largest African American mass movement.

During the 1930s, both Dubois’ congresses and Garvey’s conventions were moribund. In their place emerged a series of Pan-African organizations in the United States, Western Europe, and Africa. Pan-Africanists were enraged and galvanized by the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 and later the Second World War, which buried the enduring conceits of European and white civilization superiority. From the 1950s, as the African and Caribbean colonies gained their independence, the attention of their leaders increasingly turned inwards to unification within their respective regions, while in the United States, struggles for civil rights gathered momentum and started scoring some legislative victories. In Latin America, where the politics of racial identity had historically undermined Pan-Africanism, there was rising African Diaspora or racial consciousness, as manifested in the four Congresses of Black Culture in the Americas held between 1977 and 1984.  There were connections between these processes: the nationalist achievements in Africa and the Caribbean inspired civil rights struggles in the U. S., while civil rights activists in the U. S. provided crucial support to liberation movements fighting against recalcitrant settler and apartheid regimes in Southern Africa, by applying pressure on the American government and corporations.

Clearly, Pan-Africanism played a major role in the struggles for emancipation and empowerment in Africa and the Diaspora in all spheres. Since the attainment of independence in Africa and civil rights in the Diaspora, Pan-Africanism has faced serious challenges in terms of its material and moral anchoring, as societies on the continent and in the Diaspora have become more complex and diverse in their social composition and imaginaries. In Africa, the divergent conceptions of Pan-Africanism are sometimes encapsulated in antagonist dualisms: continentalism versus globalism, continentalists versus regionalists, and radical unionists versus functionalist gradualists. Other contestations have centered on which comes first, economic or political integration, about the primary architects of Pan-Africanism, states or civil society, presidents or the people, and the basis of a Pan-African identity, national or racial, consciousness or citizenship.

In my view, Pan-Africanism must transcend these unproductive dichotomies. It remains a powerful force in the 21st century both because its objectives are far from achieved and the new challenges facing Africa and the Diaspora require Pan-African responses. The historical imperatives include the continued marginalization of Africa, the Diaspora, and the unfinished business of emancipation and empowerment for both. Despite the enormous historical achievements of decolonization and civil rights, African and Caribbean states remain marginalized in the world and African Diasporas in their host countries. Through Pan-Africanism Africa and the Diaspora can reinforce each other’s struggles, help reposition each other, become each other’s keepers: African states have a responsibility to raise the costs of marginalizing the Diaspora, while the Diaspora have a responsibility to lower the costs of engagement between Africa and the global North.

The contemporary imperatives for Pan-Africanism include the prevailing processes and projects of globalization, the growth of African international migrations and expansion of the new Diasporas, the reconfiguration of identities and solidarities among the historic Diasporas, and the revitalization of African regional integration efforts. The catastrophic regime of neo-liberal capitalism, whose crumbling we are currently witnessing, led to the decomposition of the developmental state in the global South and the welfare state in the global North. It wrecked disproportionate havoc on both Africa and the Diaspora. While neo-liberal capitalist globalization of the late 20th century represented a triumph of capital over other social classes, it provoked the rise of new civil society organizations and transnational social movements, whose growth was facilitated by the very intrusive tentacles and information technologies associated with globalization.

This is to suggest that progressive Pan-Africanism needs to offer alternative developmental and democratic visions and instrumental capacities, to mobilize all forms of capital-financial, social, cultural, and intellectual-for socioeconomic development and empowerment in Africa and the Diaspora. The communication and connections between Africa and its Diasporas, both old and new, have never been better, thanks to the new information technologies and the velocity of global flows, which create new possibilities for forging Pan-African solidarities. While the elites still dominate Pan-Africanist networks within Africa and the Diaspora and between them, flows of various kinds and levels of intensity are more common than ever. Throughout the Americas and in Europe there is a reawakening Pan-African consciousness, for varied reasons, as can be seen in the increasingly assertive blackness in Brazil, the growing Afrocentric cultural affirmations in the United States, and the combative Afropolitan identities emerging among the African Diasporas in Europe. These struggles and reconstructions of identities are simultaneously cultural and political, economic and social, as Africa’s overlapping Diasporas seek new ways to renegotiate their place in their host societies, to achieve their historic and humanistic dreams of full democratic citizenship, and to forge new ways of relating with each other and the cognitive, cartographic, and cultural entity called Africa.

There can be little doubt that the imperatives for contemporary Pan-Africanism are both old and new, so are the contexts, objectives, and key players. For one thing, it is no longer driven by demands for independence in Africa and the Caribbean, and enfranchisement in the rest of the Diaspora that inspired and preoccupied earlier generations of Pan-Africanists. Now, the key players include states controlled by Africans on the continent and the Diaspora in the Caribbean and state actors of African descent at the highest levels of government. In Canada, the Governor-General, the putative head of state, is a Black woman, the Haitian-born, Michaëlle Jean. And the United States has its President Barack Obama.

The Obama Phenomenon: Bearing Witness to History

What I would like to do now is to share with you my observations written at critical junctures in Obama’s momentous road to the presidency. For reasons of time and the fact that these essays can be readily found on my website (www.zeleza.com) and will soon be published in a collection of essays, I will only share with you a couple of introductory paragraphs of five commentaries, to capture the dynamics of this incredible journey, how they were framed, and how I perceived them. It is my encounter with an electrifying moment, bearing witness to history in the long march of African peoples for redemption and recognition from the shackles of Euro American slavery, segregation, racism, dehumanization, and exploitation.

Barack Obama and African Diaspora Dialogues and Dissensions, April 4, 2007

In the past few weeks, I have received numerous phone calls from friends and colleagues in various African countries who are a little bewildered about charges that Senator Barrack Obama, one of the candidates vying for the Democrat Party’s nomination for the forthcoming U.S. presidential elections, is not seen as ‘black enough’ among some African Americans. I often point out that at one level this is a controversy manufactured by the white-dominated media, with its incurably racist and patronizing attitudes towards African Americans, the notion that they are incapable of judging a ‘black’ candidate on his or her merits. Historically, of course, such abiding and blinding racial loyalty has been displayed by European Americans-a person of color has never been elected president in the country’s 231 year history as a republic and only the next few months will tell whether Senator Obama will finally break this impregnable ceiling of political exclusion and bigotry.

The discourse about Senator Obama’s blackness is fuelled by America’s continued obsession and silence about race. Race is everywhere in everyday life but largely disregarded in public life. It remains the bedrock of American identity and citizenship that has defined the hierarchies of belonging and the scales of human worthiness, in which the memories and lives of African Americans remain outside the seductive and sanctimonious but spurious national narrative-the U.S. as the land of immigrants, opportunity, and democracy. To be sure, white America periodically embraces black figures-from the icons of popular culture to potential political leaders (remember the courtship of the Colin Powell of the first Gulf War and the canonization of the assassinated Martin Luther King)-in a desperate bid to escape its sordid past of slavery and segregation and continuing marginalization of people of African descent. But among many African Americans, such gestures often do little to dull the lingering pain and anger of centuries of racial abuse and exploitation that has yet to be fully atoned for. An official apology for slavery has yet to be given, reparations remain inconceivable, and the limited restitution of affirmative action is withering away.

The Political Wonder That Is Obama, February 20, 2008

It has been a dazzling performance, historic in its possibilities:  a black man electrifying America’s imagination, pulverizing the ferocious Clinton machine, collecting electoral victories with deceptive and decisive ease, seemingly unstoppable on his amazing journey to the U.S. presidency. That is the political wonder that is Barack Obama. It is an incredible story that has confounded pundits and scholars within the country and appears incomprehensible to many outside the United States. I have been watching this intriguing political drama with growing incredulity ever since Senator Obama declared his candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, the home of the revered Abraham Lincoln, in February 2007, through the long season of silly preoccupations with his blackness and serious concerns about his electability, during his first astounding victory in Iowa on January 3, and his bitter defeat in New Hampshire five days later, to his stunning successes on Super Tuesday, and his subsequent momentum sealed in an unbroken chain of victories in ten states from Virginia to Maine, Wisconsin to Hawaii. 

What accounts for Senator Obama’s meteoric rise from an obscure community organizer in Chicago to the celebrated frontrunner in the Democratic Party’s nomination for the 2008 presidential elections only three years after his election to the U.S. Senate? How has he been able to overwhelm the fabled Clinton electoral machine, forcing her once assumed inevitable candidacy into gasping for its political breath, a prospect that was unimaginable only a few weeks ago when upstart Obama’s audacity of hope was expected to perish in a Clintonian tsunami on Super Tuesday. If Senator Obama prevails and wins the nomination, and in November the presidency, his success, and even if he does not win either, his momentous appeal thus far, could be attributed to four sets of votes: against Bush and Billary and for him and the future.

President Obama: America Finally Grows Up, November 5, 2008

America and the world have witnessed a historic victory in a historic election by a historic candidate. It was an amazing night, exhilarating in its significance and symbolism, electrifying in its sheer pleasure and possibilities, a rare moment when pure joy seemed to transcend, if only fleetingly, the cruel hierarchies and schisms of race, class, gender, and nationality that have stalked and scarred this vast, bounteous land of unfulfilled promises called the United States of America. I was there at Grant Park in downtown Chicago, when the young first term Senator from Illinois, Barack Obama, accompanied by his beautiful family, ascended the stage before an ecstatic crowd of a quarter million people gathered to bear witness to the rewriting of American history, overwhelmed and empowered by the once implausible and dizzying rendezvous with America’s future.

            The victory of President-elect Obama is historic because he is the first African American to scale to the pinnacle of power in the world’s richest and most powerful country. He enjoys other less momentous but significant firsts. He is the first northern liberal Democratic President since John F. Kennedy: Lyndon Johnson, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton were southerners. He won the biggest mandates in the popular vote and electoral vote since President Johnson. Educated at ivy league schools—Columbia and Harvard, and a former law professor at the renowned University of Chicago, he is an accomplished writer and sharp thinker, a man who exemplifies public intelligence in his preference for mature dialogue with the electorate, in a political culture that was becoming dangerously enamored by the blissful anti-intellectualism of a George Bush and the banality of a Sarah Palin, who if the post-election Republican bloodletting is to be believed apparently didn’t even know Africa is a continent! And Obama is going to be the first post-baby boomer president, who was only a child when the cultural wars that have wrecked American political discourse and civility broke out, and whose unproductive polarizations he seems to disdain.


The Dawn of the Obama Era: In Memory of the Ancestors, January 20, 2009


The Obama era has begun. Like millions of people in the United States and around the world today, I sat glued to the television watching the historic inauguration, relishing the man and the moment, its substance and symbolism. Tomorrow of course, the hard work starts and the harsh realities facing the new president will break today’s magical spell. America’s daunting challenges will puncture the bubble of messianic expectations invested in the young president. The extraordinary euphoria that has gripped this nation and parts of the world is obviously unsustainable, and it will inevitably evaporate in the predictable whirlwind of stumbles, setbacks, even scandals, not to mention the structural obstacles, the systemic imperatives of this mighty but beleaguered capitalist country and imperial power, that will constrain bold changes, truly progressive transformation.

The challenges are immense indeed: ending two foreign wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that have depleted the nation of treasure and trust and abandoning the misguided commitment to ‘war on terror’ which even Britain, one of America’s staunchest allies, thinks is a mistake; managing the economic crisis and administering an effective stimulus package that will halt the economic recession and restore growth; expanding access to health care and improving the quality of education and overcoming the inequities of the prison industrial complex; pursuing sound and sustainable domestic and global environmental policies; and promoting smart foreign policies and allegiance to multilateralism. The biggest challenge facing President Obama is how to manage the relative historic decline of American global supremacy in a world of new emerging powers and growing intolerance against authoritarianism, whether within, or between nations; in short, a more global and nationalistic world, impatient with the old injustices and hierarchies of power and well-being, and hungry for development, democracy, and self-determination.


Conclusion: Waiting for the Obama Dividend, January 31, 2009 

Africa has been delirious with excitement and great expectations, following the recent election and inauguration of President Barack Obama. But the celebrations are now giving way to sober reflections. Many observers across the continent, and the United States wonder what President Obama will bring to Africa beyond hope and pride, whether there will be any significant shifts in American foreign policies towards the continent beyond the traditional paradigm that sees Africa in humanitarian, not geostrategic terms, as a global pawn rather than as a global player, notwithstanding the polite rhetoric about Africa's great potential, or the growing anxieties about China's economic ‘invasion’ of Africa, and the new found security preoccupations, in which Africa is seen as a soft underbelly in the ‘war on terror’.

The Obama Administration would go a long way in transforming US-African relations if it adopted the following five-pronged agenda. First, it needs to abandon the growing militarization of its Africa policy spawned by the misguided ‘war on terror’ and concretized by the formation of African Command (AFRICOM), which is widely opposed by African states and civil society groups. Second, the United States should promote and effectively coordinate with regional African peacemaking initiatives. Third, backing rather than bucking progressive democratic regimes, experiments, and struggles will bring both Africa and the United States long-term political dividends. The United States has a sordid record of coddling autocracies and electoral malpractices when it suits its short-term and shortsighted interests. If it seeks to win friends and influence among Africa’s peoples hungry for democracy, the U.S. must embark on sustained engagement with the continent's democratic states and civil societies. Fourth, the United States should support Africa's efforts for sustainable development, which have been undermined by the ideological regime of neo-liberalism, that undid much of Africa's post-independence development momentum. The Wall Street financial meltdown, which trigged the global economic crisis, has confirmed the utter bankruptcy of neo-liberalism. Finally, the United States would assist Africa immeasurably, if it backed the restructuring of institutions of global political and economic governance, from the UN Security Council to that detested trinity, the World Bank, IMF, and the WTO. In this regard, the U.S. needs to take leadership in environmental matters, befitting its role as the world's biggest polluter and consumer of global resources by, among other things, supporting international protocols, and funding existing agreements for climate adaptation and mitigation among the developing countries, and negotiating new and more robust arrangements to combat global warming and other environmental threats….

With the election of President Obama, the struggle for emancipation and empowerment for African peoples has indeed come a mighty long from the days of the Amistad. But it is far from over—the struggle continues!

Thank you!

© Not for quotation without the explicit permission of the author

 Return to Table of Contents

PUBLICATIONS of Dr. Paul Tiyambe Zeleza


1994. The Joys of Exile: Stories. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 194pp.

1992. Smouldering Charcoal. Oxford, United Kingdom: Heinemann International, 183pp.

1976. Night of Darkness and Other Stories. Limbe, Malawi: Montfort Press, 217pp.




A Modern Economic History of Africa, Volume 2: The Twentieth Century. Dakar: Codesria Book Series.

Rethinking Africa’s Globalization, Volume 2: The Developmental Challenges, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.

African and Its Diasporas: Dispersals and Linkages (Negotiating with a publisher).

In Press

2009. Barack Obama and African Diasporas: Dialogues and Dissensions (Oxford: Ayebia, Athens: Ohio University Press).


2008. The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs. Oxford: James Currey; Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press; Pretoria, SA: University of South Africa Press, xii+244. (Co-edited with Alfred Nhema)

2008. The Resolution of African Conflicts: The management of Conflict Resolution and Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Oxford: James Currey; Ohio: Ohio University Press; Pretoria, SA: University of South Africa Press, xv+206. (Co-edited with Alfred Nhema)

2007. The Study of Africa. Volume 1: Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Encounters. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, x+483pp. Edited.

2007. The Study of Africa, Volume 2: Global and Transnational Engagements. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, x+409pp. Edited.

2005. New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. (6 Volumes) New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 3,600pp (Associate Editor; Editor Maryanne Cline Horowitz).

2004. Human Rights, the Rule of Law and Development in Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, vi+302pp. (Co-edited with Philip J. McConnaughay).

2004. African Universities in the 21st Century, Volume1: Liberalization and Internationalization. Dakar, Pretoria: Codesria Book Series, University of South Africa Press, xiii+317pp. (Co-edited with Adebayo Olukoshi).

2004. African Universities in the 21st Century, Volume 2: Knowledge and Society. Dakar, Pretoria: Codesria Book Series, University of South Africa Press, xii+356pp. (Co-edited with Adebayo Olukoshi).

2003. Rethinking Africa’s Globalization, Volume1: The Intellectual Challenges, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, xi+500pp.

2003. Leisure in African Cities. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, xli+455. (Co-edited With Cassandra Rachel Veney).

2003. In Search of Modernity: Science and Technology in Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, xxix+642pp. (Co-edited with Ibulaimu Kakoma).

2003. Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century African History. London: Routledge, xix + 652pp. (Co-edited with Dickson Eyoh)

2001. Women in African Studies Scholarly Publishing, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, ix+171pp. (Co-edited with Cassandra Veney).

1999. Sacred Spaces and Public Quarrels: African Cultural and Economic Landscapes. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, viii+370pp. (Co-edited with Ezekiel Kalipeni).

1997. Manufacturing African Studies and Crises. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, viii+617pp.

1993. A Modern Economic History of Africa. Volume1: The Nineteenth Century. Dakar: Codesria, vii+501pp.

1988. Labor, Unionization and Women’s Participation in Kenya: 1963-1987. Nairobi: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 207pp.



1998. Crises, Conflicts and Transformations in Africa. Report of CODESRIA 8th General Assembly. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 105pp. (with Momar C. Diop)

1987. Imperialism and Labor: The International Relations of the Kenyan Labor Movement. Kisumu: Anyange Publications, 37pp.

1985. UNESCO Conference on the Revision of History Textbooks in East and Central Africa. March 25-30, Nairobi, 77pp.

1984. UNESCO Conference on the Revision of History Textbooks in East and Central Africa. December 13-18, Nairobi, 51pp.



1994. Maasai. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 64pp.

1994. Akamba. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 64pp.

1994. Mijikenda. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 64pp.

1989. Revising for History and Government for K.C.S.E. London and Nairobi: Evans Brothers, 170pp. (With A. Williams and M. Sharman).

Themes in Kenyan and World History, Volumes 1-4. London: Evans Brothers (With Adrian Williams; Unpublished).




Research in African Literatures: Special Issue to Commemorate Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade. (Co-Edited with Adeleke Adeeko and Natasha Barnes)

2002. African Issues (A Journal of the U.S. African Studies Association), Special Issue on “The African Brain Drain to the North: Pitfalls and Possibilities.” (Co-Edited with Cassandra R. Veney).




 “The Developmental and Democratic Challenges of Postcolonial Kenya,” Africa Today Special issue on Kenya.

“Dancing to the Beat of the Diaspora: Musical Exchanges between Africa and its Diasporas,” African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal

“The Challenges of Studying the African Diasporas,” African Sociological Review

In Press

“African Studies at Fifty: Confronting Old and New Challenges,” Transition 101

“The African Renaissance and Challenges of Development in the 21st Century,” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East


2008. “Dancing with the Dragon: Africa’s Courtship with China,” The Global South 2, 2: 170-186.

2008. “Contemporary African Global Migrations: Patterns, Perils, and Possibilities” Journal of Global Initiatives 3, 1: 33-56

2007. “The Struggle for Human Rights in Africa,” Canadian Journal of African Studies 41, 3: 74-506.

2007. “The Pasts and Futures of African History: A Generational Inventory,” African Historical Review 39, 1: 1-24.

2007. “Colonial Fictions: Memory and History in Yvonne Vera’s Imagination,” Research in African Literatures 38, 2: 9-21.

2006. “The Significance of Johnson-Sirleaf’s Victory,” Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies Issue 9.

2006. “The Troubled Encounter between Postcolonialism and African History,” Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 17, 2: 89-129.

2006. “The Disciplinary, Interdisciplinary, and Global Dimensions of African Studies,” International Journal of African Renaissance Studies 1, 2: 195-220.

2005. “Transnational Education and African Universities.” Journal of Higher Education in Africa 3, 1: 1-28.

2005. “The Politics and Poetics of Exile: Edward Said in Africa.” Research in African Literatures 36, 3: 1-22.

2005. “Rewriting the African Diaspora: Beyond the Black Atlantic.” African Affairs 104, 1: 35-68.

2004. “The African Academic Diaspora in the United States and Africa: The Challenges of Productive Engagement.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 24, 1: 265-278.

2003. “Transnational Scholarship: Building Linkage between the US Africanist Community and Africa.” African Issues XXX: 69-75.

2003. “Academic Freedom in the Neo-Liberal Order: Governments, Globalization, Governance, and Gender.” Journal of Higher Education in Africa 1, 1:149-194.

2003. “Imagining and Inventing the Postcolonial State in Africa,” Contours: A Journal of the African Diaspora 1, 1: 101-123.

2002. “Dr. Gates, We Presume: The Interplay of Text, Audience, and Narrator in Wonders of the African World,” Chemchemi 2, 1: 49-72 (With Zine Magubane).

2002. “African Migrations in a Global Context,” African Issues XXX, 1: 9-14.

2002. “African Universities and Globalization.” Feminist Africa 1: 64-85.

2002. “The African Renaissance: The Recurrent Search for a Usable Future.” Black Renaissance 4, 1 (Spring 2002): 145-154.

2002. “The Politics of Historical and Social Science Research in Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28, 1: 1-21.

1999. “The Past and Futures of African Studies and Area Studies.” Ufahamu XXV, 2: 1999:5-41.

1998. “The Perpetual Solitudes and Crises of African Studies in the United States Today.” Africa Today 44, 2: 193-210; also published the Institute of Research and Postgraduate Studies Seminars, Maseno University College, Kenya, Reprint Series No.1 of 1999, 20pp.

1997. “Visions of Freedom and Democracy in Post-Colonial African Literature.” Women Studies Quarterly 25, 3&4: 10-34.

1996. “Manufacturing and Consuming Knowledge: African Libraries and Publishing.” Development in Practice 6, 4: 293-303.

1996. “The Struggle of Memories in Abiku Societies: Reading Recent West African Literature.” The Toronto Review 14, 2: 54-65.

1996. “Reflections on the Traditions of Authoritarianism and Democracy in African History.” Afrika Zamani 2: 223-40.

1995. “The Moral Economy of Working Class Struggle: Strikers, the Community and the State in the 1947 Mombasa General Strike.” Africa Development 20, 3: 51-87.

1994. “The Democratic Transition in Africa and the Anglophone Writer,” Canadian Journal of African Studies 28, 3: 472-97.

1994. With Joan Sangster, “Academic Freedom in Context,” Journal of Canadian Studies 29, 1: 139-144.

1993. “The Strike Movement in Colonial Kenya.” Transafrican Journal of History 22: 1-23.

1992. “African Social Scientists and the Struggle for Academic Freedom.” Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 22: 11-32.

1991. “Economic Policy and Performance in Kenya since Independence.” Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 21: 35-76.

1990. “The Production of Historical Knowledge for Schools.” Transafrican Journal of History 19: 1-23.

1990. “The Development of the Cooperative Movement in Kenya since Independence.” Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 20: 68-94.

1989. “The Global Dimensions of Africa's Crisis: Debts, Structural Adjustment and Workers.” Transafrican Journal of History 18: 1 -53.

1988. “Women and the Labor Process in Kenya since Independence.” Transafrican Journal of History 17: 69-107.

1988. “African Sugar on the World Market.” Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 18: 1-23.

1987. “Trade Union Imperialism: American Labor, the ICFTU and the Kenyan Labor Movement.” Social and Economic Studies 36, 2: 145-170.

1986. “Pan-African Trade Unionism: Unity and Discord.” Transafrican Journal of History15: 164-190.

1986. “The Current Agrarian Crisis in Africa: Its History and Future.” Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 16: 151-186.

1986. “Independence on a Silver-Platter: The Emerging Liberal Mythology.” Ufahamu 15, 1&2: 182-201.

1985. “The Political Economy of British Colonial Development and Welfare in Africa.” Transafrican Journal of History 14: 139-161.

1984. “Colonialism and Internationalism: The Case of the British and Kenyan Labor Movements,” Ufahamu 14, 1: 9-28.

1983. “African History: The Rise and Decline of Academic Tourism.” Ufahamu 13, 1: 9-42.



In Press

 “The Media in Social Development,” in Kimani Njogu and John Middleton, eds., Media and the Construction of African Identities. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

 “Diaspora Dialogues: Engagements between Africa and Its Diasporas,” in Isidore Opkewho and Nkiru Nzegwu, eds., The New African Diaspora: Assessing the Pains and Gains of Exile. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.


2008. “Memories of Birth and Other Anecdotes,” in Ato Quayson, ed., Fathers and Daughters: Essays and Stories on a Special African Relationship. Oxford: Ayebia Publishers: 183-188.

2008. “The Historic and Humanistic Agendas of African Nationalism: A Reassessment,” in Toyin Falola and Salah Hassan, eds., Power and Nationalism in Modern Africa: Essays in Honor of the Memory of the Late Professor Don Ohadike. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 37-53.

2008. “The Conundrum of Development and Human Rights in Africa,” in John Akokpari and Daniel Zimbler, eds. Africa's Evolving Human Rights Architecture. Johannesburg: Jacana Media, Cape Town: Centre for Conflict Resolution, 24-44.

2008. “Science and Technology for Human and Social Development in Africa.” Higher Education in the World, Edited by Yazmin Cruz Lopez, et al., New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.202-206.

2007. “The Causes and Costs of War in Africa: From Liberation Struggles to the ‘War on Terror,’” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Alfred Nhema, eds. The Roots of African Conflicts: The Causes and Costs. Oxford: James Currey; Ohio: Ohio University Press; Pretoria, SA: University of South Africa Press, 1-35. (Co-edited with Alfred Nhema)

2007. “Journeying to Excellence: Knowledge, diaspora and leadership,” in Onyekachi Wambu, ed., Under the Tree of Talking: Leadership in the African Context. London: British Council, pp.231-251.

2007. “The Internationalization of African Knowledges,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, ed., The Study of Africa, Volume 2: Global and Transnational Engagements. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 1-24.

2007. “The African Academic Diaspora: The Struggle for a Global Epistemic Presence,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, ed., The Study of Africa, Volume 2: Global and Transnational Engagements. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 86-111.

2007. “Knowledge, Globalization and Hegemony: Production of Knowledge in the 21st Century,” in Sverker Sörlin and Hebe Vessuri, eds. Knowledge Society and Knowledge Economy: Knowledge, Power and Politics. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 79-106.

2006. “The Disciplining of Africa,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, ed., The Study of Africa. Volume 1: Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Encounters. London and Dakar: Zed Press and Codesria Book Series, 1-35.

2006. “The Inventions of African Identities and Languages: The Discursive and Developmental Implications,” in Olaoba F. Arasanyin and Michael A. Pemberton, eds., Selected Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference on African Linguistics: Shifting the Center of Africanism in Language Politics and Economic Globalization. Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla, 14-26.

2006. “Human Rights and Development in Africa: Current Contexts, Challenges, and Opportunities,” in Lennart Wohlgemuth and Ebrima Sall, eds., Human Rights, Regionalism and the Dilemmas of Democracy in Africa. Dakar and Uppsala: Codesria Book Series and Nordic Africa Institute, 57-96.

2005. “Challenges of the ICT Revolution in East Africa,” in Florence Ebam Etta and Laurent Elder, eds., At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa. Nairobi and Ottawa: East African Educational Publishers and IDRC, 283-294.

2005. “Changing Historiographical Perspectives on Colonialism,” in Katsuhiko Kitagawa, ed., Retrospect and Prospect of African Historiography: Colonialism and Nationalism, Osaka: Japan Center for Area Studies Occasional Paper No. 26, 5-21.

2005. “The Academic diaspora and knowledge production in and on Africa: what role for codesria?” in Thandika Mkandawire, ed., African Intellectuals: Rethinking Politics, Language, Gender and Development. Dakar and London: CODESRIA Books and Zed Books, 209-234.

2005. “Africa: The Changing Meanings of ‘African’ Culture and Identity,” in Elisabeth Abiri and Håkan Thörn, eds., Horizons: Perspectives on a Global Africa, Göteborg, Sweden: National Museum of World Cultures and Göteborg University, 31-72.

2005. “Historicizing the “Posts”: The View From African Studies,” in Zine Magubane, ed., Interrogating The “Posts” From African and Diaspora Studies. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1-38.

2004. “The Genealogies and Burdens of African Intellectuals,” in Lawford Imunde, ed., The Role of the Educated Class in Africa: Between Renaissance and Globalization. Rehburg-Loccum, Germany: Loccumer Protokolle Series, 23-46.

2004. “The Struggle for Human Rights in Africa,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Philip McConnaughay, eds., Human Rights and the Rule of Law in Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1-18.

2004. “Globalization, Intellectuals, and Africa,’ in Manfred Steger, ed., Rethinking Globalism. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 165-177 (With Zine Magubane).

2004. “The African University in the Twenty-First Century: Future Challenges and a Research Agenda,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Adebayo Olukoshi, eds., African Universities in the twenty-first century Vol.2: Knowledge and Society. Dakar and Pretoria: Codesria Book Series, University of South Africa Press, 597-615.

2004. “Introduction: The Struggle for African Universities and Knowledges,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Adebayo Olukoshi, eds., African Universities in the twenty-first century, Volume I: Liberalization and Internationalization. Dakar and Pretoria: Codesria Book Series, University of South Africa Press, 1-18

2004. “Neo-Liberalism and Academic Freedom,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Adebayo Olukoshi, eds., African Universities in the twenty-first century, Volume I: Liberalization and Internationalization. Dakar and Pretoria: Codesria Book Series, University of South Africa Press, 42-68.

2003. “Africa’s Search for Modernity in the Internet Age,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Ibulaimu Kakoma, eds., In Search of Modernity: Science and Technology in Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1-31.

2003. “The Production of Historical Knowledge for Schools,” in Toyin Falola, ed., Ghana in Africa and the World: Essays in Honor of Adu Boahen. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1-119.

2003. “The Creation and Consumption of Leisure: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Cassandra Rachel Veney, eds., Leisure in African Cities. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, vii-xli.

2002. “The Struggle for African History: The Career of B.A. Ogot,” in Toyin Falola and Atieno Odhiambo, eds., The Essays of Bethwell Allan Ogot: The Challenges of History and Leadership in Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, xxiii-l.

2002. “The Challenges of Writing African Economic History,” in George Bond and Nigel Gibson, eds., Issues in African Studies, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 59-84.

2001. “Women’s Scholarly Publishing in African Studies,” in Cassandra Rachel Veney and Paul Tiyambe Zeleza, eds., Women in African Studies Scholarly Publishing, Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1-44 (With Cassandra R. Veney).

1999. “A Social Contract for Books,” in James Gibbs and Jack Mapanje, eds., The African Writers Handbook, Oxford: African Books Collective, 1999, 3-14.

1999. “The Spatial Economy of Structural Adjustment in African Cities,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Ezekiel Kalipeni, eds., Sacred Spaces and Public Quarrels: African Economic and Cultural Landscapes. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1998, 43-71.

1999. “Rethinking Space, Politics, and Society,” in Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Ezekiel Kalipeni, eds., Sacred Spaces and Public Quarrels: African Economic and Cultural Landscapes. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1998, 1-13. (Co-Edited with Ezekiel Kalipeni)

1998. “The Challenges of Editing Scholarly Journals in Africa,” in Philip G. Altbach and Damtew Teferra, eds., Knowledge Dissemination in Africa: The Role of Scholarly Journals. Chestnut Hill, MA: Bellagio Publishing Network, 13-38.

1997. “African Libraries and the Consumption and Production of Knowledge,” in Deborah Eade, ed., Development and Patronage, Oxford: Oxfam, 14-24.

1997. “Gender Biases in African Historiography,” in Ayesha M. Imam, Amina Mama and Fatou Sow, eds., Engendering the Social Sciences in Africa. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 81-115.

1994. “The Unemployment Crisis in Africa in the 1970s and 1980s,” in Eghosa Osaghae, ed., Between State and Civil Society in Africa. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 75-122.

1992. “The Labor System in Independent Kenya,” in W.R. Ochieng' and Robert Maxon, eds., An Economic History of Kenya. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya/East African Education Publishers, 347-369.

1992. “The Colonial Labor System in Kenya,” in W.R. Ochieng' and Robert Maxon, eds., An Economic History of Kenya. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya/East African Education Publishers, 171-199.

1990. “Africa’s Economic Performance since Independence,” in L. Nyamwera, et al., Towards African Christian Liberation. Nairobi: St. Paul's Publications, 153-182.

1989. “Labor Coercion and Migration in Early Colonial Kenya,” in A. Zegeye, ed., Forced Labor and Migration: Patterns of Movement within Africa. London: Hans Zell, 159-179.

1989. “Kenya and the Second World War Years: 1939-1952,” in W.R. Ochieng’, ed., A Modern History of Kenya: 1895-1980: Essays in Honor of B.A. Ogot. London and Nairobi: Evans Brothers, 144-172.

1989. “The Establishment of Colonial Rule in Kenya: 1905-1920,” in W.R. Ochieng’, ed., A Modern 1989. History of Kenya: 1895-1980: Essays in Honor of B.A. Ogot. London and Nairobi: Evans Brothers, 35-70.

1988. “Kenya's Road to Independence and After,” in P. Gifford and W.R. Louis, eds., Decolonization and African Independence: The Transfers of Power, 1960-1980. New Haven: Yale University Press, 401-426 (With B.A. Ogot).



2008. “Education, University and College: Overview,” in John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd Edition, New York: Thomson Gale, 224-231.

2006. “Africa,” in Mike Lewis, ed., The World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago: World Book, 98-136. (With Paul Desanker, Peri Klemm, Kenneth J. Perkins, and Kwesi Kwaa Prah)

2005. “The Idea of Africa,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 19-26.

2005. “Colonialism, Africa,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 369-375.

2005. “Communication of Ideas: Africa and Its Influence,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 385-391.

2005. “Democracy, Africa,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 556-560.

2005. “Diasporas, African,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 578-583.

2005. “History, Economic,” in Maryanne Cline Horowitz, ed., New Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Volume 3. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1002-1005.

2003. “The Dynamics of Book and Library Development in Anglophone Africa,” in Roger Stringer, ed., The Book Chain in Anglophone Africa. Oxford: International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP). Oxford: INASP, 3-7.

2003. “Cold War,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 98-101.

2003. “Commonwealth,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 115-116.

2003. “Decolonization,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 135-141.

2003. “Development of African History,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 143-149.

2003. “Education: Post-Independence,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 180-186 (With Romanus Ejiaga).

2003. “Globalization,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 238-245.

2003. “Kenya,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 302-304.

2003. “Organization of African Unity,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 410-411.

2003. “Panafricanism,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 415-418.

2003. “Plantation Agriculture,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 434-437.

2003. “Press,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, pp.442-445 (With Francis Nyamnjoh).

2003. “Third World,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 555-561.

2003. “Urbanization,” in P. T. Zeleza and D. Eyoh, eds., Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa. London: Routledge, 577-583 (With Ezekiel Kalipeni).



2009. “President Obama: America Finally Grows Up,” Center for African Studies, Rutgers University, Newsletter, Spring, Vol. X11, 8-12 at http://ruafrica.rutgers.edu/about/media/cas_newsletter_volume_13.pdf

2006. “Madam President: The Changing Gender Dynamics of African Politics,” CODESRIA Bulletin 1 & 2: 20-22.

2006. “The Political Wrath of Hurricane Katrina,” Tinabanthu 2, 2:

2005. “The Developmental Costs of Conflicts.” Codesria Bulletin, 3&4: 34-36.

2005. “The Republicanization of America.” Codesria Bulletin, 1&2: 40-42.

2001. “Re-presenting Slavery, Re-presenting Race, and Mis-representing Africa: A Critique of the Wonders of the African World.” Codesria Bulletin 3 & 4: 2-5. (With Zine Magubane)

1997. “Academic Freedom in the North and the South: An African Perspective.” Academe: Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, 83, 6: 16-21.

1997. “The New Frontiers for African Scholarly Journals.” African Periodicals Exhibit 1997: 3-6.

1996. “National Book Policy: The Key to Long-Term Development.” Southern Africa Political and Economic Monthly 10, 1: 33-36. Also published as, “A Social Contract for Books” in The African Book Publishing Record 22, 4: 251-6, and in M. McCartney, ed., National Book Policies for Africa: Key to Long-tem Development. Harare: Zimbabwe International Book Fair, pp.12-20.

1995. “Report of Codesria Eighth General Assembly.” Codesria Bulletin, No.4: 3-15. (With Momar Coumba Diop)

1995. “Totalitarian Power and Censorship in Malawi.” Southern Africa Political and Economic Monthly 8, 11: 33-7. Also published as “Banishing Words and Stories in Banda’s Malawi,” Codesria Bulletin, 3: 1-4.

1995. “Noma Award Acceptance Speech.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 23/4: 7-8; Codesria Bulletin 1: 4-5; African Publishing Review 4, 2: 9; The African Book Publishing Record 20, 4 (1994): 237-9.



2008. “Africa and Its Diasporas: Remembering South America,” Working Papers, Center for Africana Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2008-08-21, Working Paper 009, 29pp, available at https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/32799

2003. In Sandra Wilson, Human rights and international development: does the language of human rights help or hinder debate? Cumberland Lodge, London, UK, Commonwealth Conference, 84pp.

1997. “Research Cooperation Within Africa,” in Academic Book Production and Distribution in Africa. Conference Report, Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen, Norway, April 10-11, 90-104.



2004. “Resurrecting South Africa from the Ashes of Apartheid,” a review article of Robert Fines with Dennis Davis, Beyond Apartheid: Labour and Liberation in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1990, pp.xiii+338; Stephen Gelb, ed. South Africa's Economic Crisis. Cape Town: David Philip, 1991, pp.xiii+289; Pauline H. Baker, et al., eds., South Africa and the World Economy in the 1990s. Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Philip, 1993, pp.xiv+263; Ben Turok, et al., Development and Reconstruction in South Africa: A Reader. Johannesburg: Institute for African Alternatives, 1993, pp.226; Iraj Abedian and Barry Standish, eds., Economic Growth in South Africa: Selected Policy Issues. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp.viii+239; Peter G. Moll, The Great Economic Debate: The Radical's Guide to the South African Economy. Johannesburg: Skotaville, 1991, pp.154; Peter Moll, et al., eds., Redistribution: How can it Work in South Africa? Cape Town: David Philip, 1991, pp.ix+150; Duncan Innes, et al., Power and Profit: Politics, Labour, and Business in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp.x+310; African National Congress, The Reconstruction and Development Programme: A Policy Framework. Johannesburg: Umanyano Publications, 1994, pp.147, in Africa Development 1&2: 7-15.

1997. “Struggle for the University,” a review article of J. F. Ade Ajayi, Lameck K. H. Goma, and G. Ampah Johnson, The African Experience with Higher Education. Accra: The Association of African Universities, 1996, pp.xii+276; Emanuel Ngara, The African University and Its Mission. Lesotho: The Institute of Southern African Studies, 1994, pp.xviii+194; Lalage Bown, ed., Towards a Commonwealth of Scholars: A New Vision for the Nineties. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1994, pp.xii+245; and Codesria, The State of Academic Freedom in Africa. Dakar: Codesria, 1996, pp.189, in Africa Development 22, 2: 181-192.

1997. “Fictions of the Postcolonial,” a review article of  Francis Barker, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iversen, eds., Colonial Discourse / Postcolonial Theory. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994, pp.vi+288; Padmini Mongia, ed. Contemporary Postcolonial Theory: A Reader. London and New York: Arnold, 1996, pp.vii+407; O.P. Juneja, Post Colonial Novel: Narratives of Colonial Consciousness. New Delhi: Creative Books, 1995, pp.x+182, in The Toronto Review 15, 2:19-29.

1995. “Bullies in Uniform: Military Misrule in Nigeria,” a review article of Tunji Olagunju, Adele Jinadu and Sam Oyovbaire, Transition to Democracy in Nigeria (1985-1993). Ibadan: Safari Books, 1993, pp.ix+278; and Said Adejumobi and Abubakar Momoh, eds., The Political Economy of Nigeria Under Military Rule: 1984-1993. Harare: Sapes Books, 1995, pp.xix+359, in Africa Development 20, 4: 143-51.

1995. “Beyond Communal Tenure: Land and Cattle in African Agrarian Systems,” a review article of Thomas J. Bassett and Donald E. Crummey, eds., Land in African Agrarian Systems. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993, pp.xi+418; and Peter Rigby. Cattle, Capitalism, and Class: Ilparakuyo Maasai and Transformations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992, pp.xviii+ 247, in Africa Development 20, 1: 147-57.

1995. “Homage to the Master,” a review article of Adewale Maja-Pearce, ed. Wole Soyinka: An Appreciation. Oxford: Heinemann, 1994, pp.ix+166, in The Toronto Review 13, 2: 87-90.

1994. “African Studies and the Disintegration of Paradigms,” a review article of Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp.xi+225; Robert H. Bates, et al., Africa and the Disciplines: The Contribution of Research in Africa to the Social Sciences and Humanities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993, pp.xxiii+245; Frederick Cooper, et al., Confronting Historical Paradigms: Peasants, Labor, and the Capitalist World System in Africa and Latin America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993, pp.viii+422, in Africa Development 19, 4: 179-93.

1994. “The Tribulations of Undressing the Emperor,” a review article of Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, pp.xxviii+380, in Canadian Journal of African Studies 28, 1: 106-20.

1993. “Gendering African History,” a review article of Jane L. Parpart and Kathleen A. Staudt, eds., Women and the State in Africa. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 1989, pp.229; Sharon Stichter and Jane L. Parpart, eds., Women, Employment and the Family in the International Division of Labor. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990, pp.253; Luise White, The Comforts of Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp.285; and Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16, 4 (1991) Special Issue on African Women Family, State, and Economy in Africa, in Africa Development 18, 1:99-117.

1992. “Rethinking Development and Underdevelopment,” a review article of Gavin Kitching, Development and Underdevelopment in Historical Perspective. London:  Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989. Pp.209; and Nigel Harris, The End of the Third World. Newly Industrializing Countries and the Decline of an Ideology. London: Penguin, 1988, pp.231, in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 22.

1992. “South Africa: Through the Eyes of a Nineteenth Century Tourist,” a review article of Adulphe Delegorgue, Travels in Southern Africa, Volume 1. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1990, pp.359, in Research in African Literatures 23, 3: 147-9.

1992. “The Development of African Capitalism,” a review article of John Sender and Sheila Smith, The Development of Capitalism in Africa. London and New York: Methuen, 1986, pp.171; and Paul Kennedy, African Capitalism. The Struggle for Ascendancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.233, in Africa Development 15: 129-136.

1991. “Agrarian Crisis in Africa,” a review article of Peter Lawrence, ed. World Recession and the Food Crisis in Africa.  London: Review of African Political Economy and James Currey, 1986. Pp.vi+314; Philip Raikes, Modernizing Hunger: Famine, Food Surplus and Farm Policy in the EEC and Africa. London: James Currey and Heinemann, 1988. Pp.vii, 280; and Thandika Mkandawire and Naceur Bourenane, eds., The State and Agriculture in Africa, London: Codesria Book Series, 1987, pp.380, in African Urban Quarterly 6, 1&2: 130-134.

1990. “The History and Structure of African Poverty,” a review article of John Illife, The African Poor, A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp.387, in Africa Development 15, 1: 97-104.



1998. Tekeste Nagash and Lars Rudebeck, eds., Dimensions of Development with Emphasis on Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1995, pp.279, in International Journal of African Historical Studies 31, 1: 244-5.

1998. Valentine Udoh James, Sustainable Development in Third World Countries. Westport, Con.: Praeger, 1996, pp.xvi+245, in International Journal of African Historical Studies 31, 1: 245-7.

1998. Archie Mafeje and Samir Radwan, eds., Economic and Demographic Change in Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, pp.173, in International Journal of African Historical Studies 31, 1: 247-9.

1998. P. T. W. Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi, eds., Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitute, 1996, pp.310, in Africa Development.

1998. Toyin Falola, Development Planning and Decolonization in Nigeria. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1996, pp.xxiv+215. Journal of African History 38, 3:517-19.

1997. James C. McCann, People of the Plow: An Agricultural History of Ethiopia, 1800-1990. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1995, pp.xviii+298, in Technology & Culture 38, 3: 980-982.

1996. Raija Warkentin, Our Strength is in our fields: African families in change. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, pp.xi+330, in Canadian Woman Studies.

1996. Lorraine J. Haricombe and F. W. Lancaster, Out in the Cold: Academic Boycotts and the Isolation of South Africa. Arlignton, VA: Information Resource Press, pp.xii+158, in History of Education Quarterly 36, 3:314-5.

1996. Achim von Oppen, Terms of Trade and Terms of Trust. Münster: Lit Verlag, n.d., pp.viii+473, in Journal of African History 37, 2: 312-313.

1996. H.S. Wilson, African Decolonization. London and New York: Edward Arnold, 1994, pp.xi +222, in Journal of African History 37, 2: 337-338.

1995. Frank Fonda Taylor, To Hell with Paradise: A History of the Jamaican Tourist Industry. Pittsburg and London: University of Pittsburg Press, 1993, pp.ix+259, in Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 20, 39-40: 307-9.

1995. Mahmood Mamdani and Mamadou Diouf, eds., Academic Freedom in Africa. Dakar: Codesria, 1994, pp.370, in International Higher Education 1 (May).

1995. David Sahn, ed., Adjusting to Policy Failure in African Economies. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1994, pp.xiv+421, in International Journal of African Historical Studies 28: 416-18.

1995. Henrietta L. Moore and Megan Vaughan, Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition, and Agricultural Change in the Northern Province of Zambia, 1890-1910. London: James Currey, 1994, pp.xxv+278, in International Journal of African Historical Studies 28, 2: 404-6.

1995. E.S. Atieno-Odhiambo and David Cohen, Burying S.M. Otieno. London: James Currey, 1992, pp.xiii+159, in Canadian Journal of African Studies 29, 1: 139-41.

1995. Yvonne Vera, Nehanda. Toronto: Tsar Publications, 1994, pp.118, in The Toronto Review 13, 3: 87-9.

1994. Jacques Depelchin, From the Congo Free State to Zaire (1885-1974): Towards a Demystification of Economic and Political History. Dakar: Codesria Book Series, 1992, pp.235, in Africa Development 19, 2: 183-5.

1994. Z.A. Konczacki, J.L. Parpart and T.M. Shaw, eds., Studies in the Economic History of Southern Africa. Vol One: The Front Line States.  London: Frank Cass, 1990, pp.228, in Africa Development 19, 3: 137-9.

1994. Mathew J. Schoffeleers, River of Blood: The Genesis of a Martyr Cult in Southern Malawi, c. A.D. 1600. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992, pp.xiii+325, in Ethnohistory 41, 3: 506-8.

1994. Timothy M. Shaw, Reformism and Revisionism in Africa's Political Economy in the 1990s. London and New York: Macmillan and St. Martin's Press, 1993, pp.xii+215, in The International Journal of African Historical Studies 27, 1: 195-7.

1994. Robert G. Gregory, The Rise and Fall of Philanthropy in East Africa: The Asian Contribution. New Brunswick, N.J. and London: Transaction Publishers, 1992, pp.x+251, in History of Education Quarterly 34, 1: 112-4.

1993. Steve Feierman, Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, pp.340, in Africa Development 18, 1: 118-120.

1993. Jonathan Crush, Alan Jeeves and David Yudelman, South Africa's Labor Empire: A History of Black Migrancy to the Gold Mines. Boulder: Westview, 1991, pp.266, in Canadian Journal of African Studies 27, 1: 111-112.

1993. Patrick Manning, Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp.236, in Africa Development 17, 4: 99-101.

1993. Frederick Cooper, On The African Waterfront, Urban Disorder and the Transformation of Work in Colonial Mombasa. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987, pp.290, in Transafrican Journal of History 20: 213-6.

1993. Roger C. Riddell, Foreign Aid Reconsidered. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press and James Currey, 1988, pp.310, in African Urban Quarterly 6, 1&2: 157-9.

1990. Hosea Jaffe, A History of Africa. London: Zed Books, 1988, pp.172, in Transafrican Journal of History 19: 194-6.

1989. JASPA, Informal Sector in Lilongwe. A Study of Informal Sector Activities in Garages, Metal Fabricating, Tinsmithing and Woodworking. Addis Ababa: JASPA, 1987, pp.120, in African Urban Quarterly 4, 3&4: 400-1.

1989. Peter Coughlin and G.K. Ikiara, eds., Industrialization in Kenya. In Search of A Strategy. London and Nairobi: James Currey and Heinemann Kenya, 1988, pp.328, in African Urban Quarterly 4, 1&2: 152-5.

1989. J.L. Moock, ed., Understanding Africa's Rural Households and Farming Systems. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1986, pp.234, in African Urban Quarterly 4, 1 & 2: 150-2.

1989. ILO/JASPA, The Challenge of Employment and Basic Needs in Africa. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.379, in Eastern African Social Science Research Review IV, 2: 87-91.

1989. The World Bank and UNDP, Africa's Adjustment and Growth in the 1980s. Washington. D.C: The World Bank and the UNDP, 1989, pp.33, in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development 19: 187-91.

1988. Thomas Odhiambo, et al., Hope Born Out of Despair. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya, 1988, pp.123, in Transafrican Journal of History 18: 196-7.

1988. Tabitha Kanogo, Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau. Nairobi and London: James Currey and Heinemann Kenya, 1987, pp.206, in Transafrican Journal of History 17: 193-6.



First published on The Zeleza Post from where they are often picked up by numerous online sites and publications, academic newsletters and journals, and courses packs, only a few of which are indicated below.

2009. “Obama Doesn’t Need a Poodle: The End of a ‘Special Relationship’?” 03/04/2009 http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/obama-doesnt-need-poodle-end-special-relationship

2009. “Obama, Africa, and African Americans,” 03/04/20. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/obama-africa-and-african-americans

2009. “The Indictment of the Sudanese President: Justice or Neo-colonialism?” 03/04/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/indictment-sudanese-president-justice-or-neo-colonialism

2009. “Waiting for the Obama Dividend: The Future of Africa-US Relations,” 01/31/2009. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/waiting-obama-dividend-future-africa-us-relations

2009. “The Gloom of Davos and Hopes of the Social Summit,” 01/31/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/gloom-davos-and-hopes-social-summit

2009. “The Arrest of Mkunda: Hope for the Congo?” 01/24/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/arrest-mkunda-hope-congo

2008. “The Winds of Recession Rattle the Maple Leaf: Canada in Crisis,” 12/03/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/winds-recession-rattle-maple-leaf-canada-crisis

2009. “The Dawn of the Obama Era: In Memory of the Ancestors,” 01/20/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/dawn-obama-era-memory-ancestors; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, January 22, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/53459; Kenya Imagine, January 22, http://www.kenyaimagine.com/International-Affairs/The-Dawn-of-the-Obama-Era-In-Memory-of-the-Ancestors.html; AllAfrica.Com, January 22, http://allafrica.com/stories/200901270490.html

2009. “Farewell, Mr. President, And Good Riddance,” 01/17/2009.   http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/farewell-mr-president-and-good-riddance

2009. “The Gaza Tragedy: The West's Connivance with Israeli Apartheid,” 01/10/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/gaza-tragedy-wests-connivance-israeli-apartheid; also published at Palestinian and African (American) Diaspora Solidarity Movement, http://redblackgreenandwhite.blogspot.com/

2009. “Lifting the Veils of Invisibility for Africa's Expanding Middle Classes,” 01/07/2009.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/lifting-veils-invisibility-africas-expanding-middle-classes

2008. “International Human Rights Day: The Global Struggle for Human Rights Continues,” 12/09/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/international-human-rights-day-global-struggle-human-rights-continues

2008. “The Financial Crisis and American Universities,” 12/05/2008.   http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/financial-crisis-and-american-universities

2008. “Challenges in the Production and Globalization of African Knowledges,” 11/28/2008.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/challenges-production-and-globalization-african-knowledges-0; also published at Southern Perspectives: A Lateral Dialogue of Ideas, January 13, http://www.southernperspectives.net/book/journal-of-alternative-perspectives-in-the-social-sciences

2008. “What Happened to the African Renaissance? The Challenges of Development in the 21st Century,” 11/20/2008.  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/what-happened-african-renaissance-challenges-development-21st-century-0

2008. “President Obama: America Finally Grows Up,” 11/06/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/president-obama-america-finally-grows; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, November 13, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/51949; AllAfrica.Com, November 13, http://allafrica.com/stories/200811140488.html; The Norwegian Council for Africa, http://www.afrika.no/Detailed/17158.html; and Newsletter of the Center for African Studies, Rutgers University, Spring, Vol. X11, 8-12, http://ruafrica.rutgers.edu/about/media/cas_newsletter_volume_13.pdf

2008. “In the Trails of the Historic Diaspora: Africa’s New Global Migrations and Diasporas,” 11/06/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/trails-historic-diaspora-africas-new-global-migrations-and-diasporas

2008. “Obama Rakes In Campaign Cash and Endorsements,” 10/20/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/obama-rakes-campaign-cash-and-endorsements

2008. “The Financial Crisis and Asia,” 10/02/2008 http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/fimnancial-crisis-and-asia

2008. “The Financial Crisis and Africa,” 10/01/2008 http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/financial-crisis-and-africa

2008. “The Bumpy Roads Towards The End of Pax-Americana?” 09/25/2008 http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/bumpy-roads-towards-end-pax-americana

2008. “The Developmental and Democratic Challenges of Postcolonial Kenya,” 09/23/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/developmental-and-democratic-challenges-postcolonial-kenya; also published at Mwananchi@yahoogroups.com http://groups.yahoo.com/group/africa-oped/message/35396

2008. “The Fall of Thabo Mbeki: Whither South Africa?” 09/20/2008  http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/fall-thabo-mbeki-whither-south-africa

2008. “The Economic Tsunami on Wall Street,” 09/16/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/economic-tsunami-wall-street; also published at Wananchi Forums: The Voice of the Voiceless, http://www.wananchiforums.com/showthread.php?t=983

2008. “The Charade of International Aid,” 09/06/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/charade-international-aid

2008. “The Poverty of Nationalism and the Zimbabwe Tragedy,” 07/01/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/poverty-nationalism-and-zimbabwe-tragedy

2008. “Senator Hillary Clinton's Presidential Entitlement: Echoes of the Mugabe Syndrome,” 06/04/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/senator-hilary-clinton-perils-entitlement

2008. “The Racialized Complexes of Xenophobia,” 05/26/2008, http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/racialized-complexes-xenophobia; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, May 27, at http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/panafrican/48366

2008. “The Whiteness of Airports,” 05/13/2008, http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/whiteness-airports

2008. “Zimbabwe's Political Watershed: Is Mugabe's End Nigh?,” 04/03/2008http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/zimbabwes-political-watershed-mugabes-end-nigh; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, April 8, at http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/47203; and Zimpolitic, April 7, http://zimpolitic.blogspot.com/2008/04/zimbabwes-political-watershed-is.html

2008. “Obama’s Speech and the Black Man's Burden: The Racism of America's Racial Discourse,” 03/19/2008, http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/obamas-speech-and-black-mans-burden-racism-americas-racial-discourse-1; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, March 20, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/46808

2008. “Remembering Martin Luther King: Beyond the Sanitization of a Dreamer,” 01/21/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/remembering-martin-luther-king-beyond-sanitization-dreamer; also published at Religious Dispatches, January 23,http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/humanrights/27/mlk's_%E2%80%98dream%E2%80%99,_unrealized_and_undigested 

2007. “The African Cup of Nations: For the Love of Football and Leisure,” 01/19/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/african-cup-nations-love-football-and-leisure

2007. “When Voters Lie: Polls, New Hampshire, and the Obama Defeat,” 01/09/2008. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/when-voters-lie-polls-new-hampshire-and-obama-defeat

2007. “The 2007 Kenyan Elections: Holding a Nation Hostage to a Bankrupt Political Class,” 12/31/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/2007-kenya-elections-holding-nation-hostage-bankrupt-political-class; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, January 4, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/45212; African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Africa Focus Bulletin, January 8, 2008, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/afrfocus/afrfocus010808.html; African Path, December 31, http://www.africanpath.com/p_blogEntry.cfm?blogEntryID=2966 

2007. “African Studies in the Postcolony,” 11/05/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/african-studies-postcolony

2007. “The Contemporary Relevance of Pan-Africanism,” 09/24/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/contemporary-relevance-pan-africanism; also available at AfricAvenir: Foundation for Development, International Cooperation and Peace, http://www.africavenir.com/elibrary/african-renaissance/index.php

2007. “Dancing with the Dragon: Africa’s Courtship with China,” 09/05/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/dancing-dragon-africa-s-courtship-china; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, September 7, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/africa_china/43183

2007. “African Studies from a Global Perspective,” 06/17/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/african-studies-global-perspective; also published at Counterpoint, the Cultural Relations Think Tank of the British Council, October 4, http://www.counterpoint-online.org/download/542/African-Studies-from-a-Global-Perspective.pdf

2007. “The Quest for Science and Technology in Africa,” 06/16/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/quest-science-and-technology-africa; also published in Higher Education in the World, Edited by Yazmin Cruz Lopez, et al., New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.202-206.

2007. “The Class of 2007: The Rising Costs of Middle Class Certification,” 05/29/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/class-2007-rising-costs-middle-class-certification

2007. “The Struggle for Human Rights in Africa,” 05/18/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/struggle-human-rights-africa; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, May 24, at http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/rights/41591; and as article in Canadian Journal of African Studies, 41, 3: 74-506.

2007. “The Importance of a Liberal Education in Our Globalizing World,” 05/01/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/importance-liberal-education-our-globalizing-world

2007. “Love, Lies, Wolfowitz, and the World Bank,” 04/29/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/sex-lies-wolfowitz-and-world-bank; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, May 4, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/corruption/41166; and Rinoceros, May 15, http://www.rinoceros.org/spip.php?article5039

2007. “In Defense of the New Diasporas and Brain Mobility,” 04/20/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/defense-new-diasporas-and-brain-mobility

2007. “Barack Obama and African Diaspora Dialogues and Dissensions,” 04/20/2007. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/barack-obama-and-african-diaspora-dialogues-and-dissensions

2006. “The Power, Possibilities and Perils of African Nationalisms,” 10/06/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/power-possibilities-and-perils-african-nationalisms; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, November 8, at http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/development/38165; and EgyptSearch.Com, October 6, http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=8;t=004168;p=1#000009 

2006. “Clouds Over the Rainbow Nation: South Africa and the Zuma Saga,” 09/20/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/clouds-over-rainbow-nation-south-africa-and-zuma-saga; also published at Centre for Civil Society, Library Online, University of Kwazulu Natal, http://www.ukzn.ac.za/ccs/default.asp?3,28,10,2796 

2006. “The Arab-Israeli Conflict Revisited: Back to the Madness of War,” 07/27/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/arab-israeli-conflict-revisited-back-madness-war

2006. “Angelina Jolie Discovers Africa,” 06/21/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/angelina-jolie-discovers-africa; also published at Africa Resource, http://www.africaresource.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=144:angelina-jolie-discovers-africa&catid=36:essays-a-discussions&Itemid=346; Oasis, Columbia College, http://oasis.colum.edu/ics/Academics/LIBE/49-2700__UG07/FA_2007_UNDG-49-2700__UG07_-02/Syllabus.jnz 

2006. “A Historical Accounting of African Universities: Beyond Afropessimism,” 06/15/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/historical-accounting-african-universities-beyond-afropessimism; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, August 30, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/35832; African Higher Education Research Online, http://ahero.uwc.ac.za/index.php?module=cshe&action=viewtitle&id=cshe1_11; H-Net Discussion Network, http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-africa&month=0702&week=b&msg=KsTwa1ktR5FHUyEzglH7EQ&user=&pw= ; and Centre for Civil Society, Library Online, University of Kwazulu Natal, http://www.ukzn.ac.za/ccs/default.asp?3,28,10,2666; Educion en Valores,  http://www.miescuelayelmundo.org/spip.php?rubrique54; and as an article in John Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd Edition, New York: Thomson Gale, 224-231.

2006. “The Challenges of Doing African Studies,” 03/26/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/challenges-doing-african-studies; also available at the of Michigan, http://sitemaker.umich.edu/africa2020/files/zeleza.doc

2006. “Cartoons as Weapons of Mass Provocation,” 02/12/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/global-affairs/cartoons-weapons-mass-provocation; also published at Pambazuka News: Forums for Social Justice in Africa, February 16, http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/comment/32049; University of Texas, www.utexas.edu/conferences/africa/ads/1495.html; AllAfrica. Com, http://allafrica.com/stories/200602160685.html; Knowledge Center, Dev-Zone, http://www.dev-zone.org/knowledge/Peace_and_Conflict/Religion__Peace_and_Conflict/index.php   

2006. “Madam President: The Changing Gender Dynamics of African Politics,” 01/16/2006. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/madam-president-changing-gender-dynamics-african-politics; also published in CODESRIA Bulletin 1 & 2: 20-22; and as an article in Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies Issue 9, http://www.jendajournal.com/issue9/zeleza.html

2005. “The Postcolonial Uprising in France,” 11/16/2005. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/european-affairs/postcolonial-uprising-france; also published at AfricAvenir: Foundation for Development, International Cooperation and Peace, http://africavenir.com/news/2006/07/580/the-postcolonial-uprising-in-france; Seneweb.Com, http://forum.seneweb.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=695290&sid=2c7fa093c2bd565709613cafa7f698ea; University of Texas, http://www.utexas.edu/conferences/africa/ads/1361b.html;  University of Wisconsin http://history.wisc.edu/bernault/syllabus%20600%20cultures%202007.pdf.

2005. “The Political Wrath of Hurricane Katrina,” 09/04/2005. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/political-wrath-hurricane-katrina; also published at The Black Commentator, September 15, Issue 150, http://www.blackcommentator.com/; Brownpolitics, http://groups.yahoo.com/group/brownpolitics/message/523; Marxism Mailing List, http://archives.econ.utah.edu/archives/marxism/2005w37/msg00140.htm; AISA Electronic Monographs, http://www.ai.org.za/electronic_monograph.asp?ID=33;  and Tinabanthu 2, 2;

2005. “The Developmental Costs of Conflicts,” 08/30/2005.   http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/developmental-costs-conflicts; also published in Codesria Bulletin, 3&4: 34-36.

2005. “The Agony of Zimbabwe,” 05/09/2005. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/agony-zimbabwe; University of Texas, http://www.utexas.edu/conferences/africa/ads/682.html

2005. “The Republicanization of America: An African’s Observation on the 2004 U.S. Elections,” 04/20/2005. http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/u-s-affairs/republicanization-america-african-s-observation-2004-u-s-elections; also published at The Black Commentator, November 18, Issue 114, http://www.blackcommentator.com/; University of Texas, http://www.utexas.edu/conferences/africa/ads/31.html; T-Nation, http://www.t-nation.com/free_online_forum/world_news_war/the_republicanization_of_america; AISA Electronic Monographs, http://www.ai.org.za/electronic_monograph.asp?ID=28; and Codesria Bulletin, 1&2: 40-42.

2000. “The U.S. Elections, Political System and Africa.” USAfrica Online, www.USAfricaonline.com, November 24, 2000.



2009. “Negative race relations still obstacle for Obama,” By Kathleen Crouch, Daily Targum, March 5, http://www.dailytargum.com/university/negative_race_relations_still_obstacle_for_obama-1.1598196

2009. “Meet: Paul Tiyambe Zeleza – writer, scholar, academician,” By Sam Banda Jnr, February 13, The Daily Times, http://www.dailytimes.bppmw.com/article.asp?ArticleID=12145

2009. “Ox ushers in tough year for universities, “By Geoffrey Maslen, South China Morning Post, January 10, http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/

2008. “El Experto Responde. El voto afroamericano. Un cambio politico Por: Paul Tiyambe Zeleza,” Elespectador, Colombia, October 14, http://www.elespectador.com/impreso/internacional/articuloimpreso43755-un-cambio-politico

2008. “Africa’s long road to democracy,” By Annie Burns-Pieper, Dalnews, November 26, http://dalnews.dal.ca/2008/11/26/killam3.html

2008. “African heritage, an American dream,” By Nana , Chicago Tribune, November 27, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-generation-obamanov27,0,4600669.story; Baltimore Sun, November 27, http://www.baltimoresun.com/topic/chi-generation-obamanov27,0,2581370; The Los Angeles Times, December 1,,+zeleza&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=us

2008. “Reflections on ‘The Pasts and Futures of African Studies’” By Anna Thomas, The Journal, Queen’s University, March 28, http://www.queensjournal.ca/story/2008-03-28/opinions/reflections-past-and-futures-african-studies/

2008. “Talking About ‘Tribe’,” AfricaFocus Bulletin, January 8, http://www.africafocus.org/docs08/ethn0801.php

2007. “‘Exceptionalist’ Thinking Limits Grasp of SA Reality,” By Anthony Butler, Business Day, July 6. http://www.businessday.co.za/articles/topstories.aspx?ID=BD4A510030

2006. “Interview with Paul Tiyambe Zeleza,” News from the Nordic Africa Institute 3 (October): 15-19.

1997. “Intellectuals in Kenya and the Crises in African Studies,” By Huntington Ochwada, Codesria Bulletin, 4: 38-9.

1997. “Why African Scholars Do Not Respond to the Continent’s Woes,” Huntington Ochwada, Sunday Nation, Nairobi, Kenya, September 14.

1997. “Writers Urged to Oppose Despotic Governments.” The Herald, Harare, Zimbabwe, August 9:8.

1997. “Not Your Average Council. International Conference on Academic Freedom, Politics and the Future of the University.” Canadian Association of University Teachers Bulletin, June: 4.

1996. “Don’t forget the past, artists told.” The Nation, Blantyre, Malawi, July 22: 3.

1996. Portia Chinyama, “Writers resolve ends in foundation birth.” The Nation, Blantyre, Malawi, July 23: 3.

1996. Martin Makoni, “African states to develop book policies.” The Herald, Harare, Zimbabwe, July 29: 10.

1995. “The Challenges of Academic Publishing for African Scholars.” Bellagio Publishing Network Newsletter, 13 (April):  4-5.

1995. “UI history prof selected to direct African Studies,” By Raven Hill, Daily Illini, Champaign, Illinois, 125, 43: 5.

1995. “On the cutting edge of ideas,” Guest of the Week Column, By Jika Nkolokosa, The Nation, Blantyre, Malawi, 1, 3 (August, Saturday 19-25): 7.

1995. “President to open Book Fair,” By Davison Maruziva, The Herald, Harare, Zimbabwe, Tuesday, August 1: 6.

1995. “Interview with Paul Tiyambe Eliza,” Don Selby, Peterborough Review 2, 1: 32-41.

1995. “Interview” (in Japanese) World Plaza, Tokyo, Japan, 4, 5:56-8.

1995. “Special Interview” (in Japanese), By Machiko Seino, World Now, Tokyo, Japan, 15: 170-1.

1995. “Publishing at home for a truer image of self.” Trent Fortnightly, Peterborough, Ontario, 25, 10 (February 9):5.

1994. “Malawian Scholar Tiyambe Zeleza, Noma Award Winner 1994, Receives Prize during Book Week in Dar es Salaam,” By Katherine Salahi, Bellagio Publishing Network Newsletter 12 (December): 3-4.

1994. “Malawian Scholar Wins the 1994 Noma Award,” By Ciugu Mwagiru, The East African, Nairobi, Kenya (December 12-18): 1, 3.

1994. Anne Kamande, “Book famine hits Africa.” The Express, Issue No.207, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (December 1-3): 6.

1994. “Stories about exile,” By Scott Whalen, Peterborough Examiner, Peterborough, Ontario, May 29: B3.

1994. “Trent professor seems to have the `write’ stuff,” By Paul Rutherford, Peterborough This Week, Peterborough, Ontario, May 17: 6.

1993. “An African in Exile: Breaking the Stereotypes,” By Julie Rouse, Trent Fortnightly, Peterborough, Ontario, 24, 6 (November 4): 5.

1992. “Trent prof’s imagination dwells in Africa,” By Charles Kopun, Peterborough Examiner, Thursday, December 24: D9.

1992. “Africans struggle for democracy made clear,” By Paul Rutherford, Peterborough This Week 4, 49 (December 2): 14.

1992. “History prof publishes novel.” Trent Fortnightly 23, 5, Peterborough, Ontario, (November 5): 7.

1992. “Tiyambe Zeleza’s Fictional Africa,” Preface 1, 3, Toronto, Ontario (September): 3.

1989. “A Glimpse on Gender, the Food Crisis and Related Matters,” By Gloria Emeagwali, Codesria Bulletin 3: 14-15.



2000. “Blood Feuds,” in Stephen Gray, ed., The Picador Book of African Stories, London: Picador, 237-245.

2000. “Foggy Seasons,” in Ayanna Black, ed., Fiery Spirits and Voices Canadian Writers of African Descent, Toronto: HarperPerennialCanada, 125-148.

1997. “Rocking Chair,” in George Elliot Clarke, ed., An Anthology of African Canadian Writing.  Toronto: Stewart & McClelland, 171-80.

1994. “Foggy Seasons,” in Ayanna Black, ed., Fiery Spirits: Canadian Writers of African Descent. Toronto: HarperCollins, 137-60.

1993. “Trial of an Academic Tourist,” Codesria Bulletin 1: 20-22.

1993. “Family Secrets,” ICARUS: New Writing From Around the World 9 (Winter): 1-17.

1983. “A Soldier without An Ear,” in Paul A. Scanlon, ed., Short Stories From Central and Southern Africa. London: Heinemann, 141-149.

1977. “The Beggar,” Star Magazine, Blantyre, October-November.

1975. “Behind the Facade,” Prize Magazine, Harare, November.




‘From the AMISTAD to The White House’- An Impressionistic Water Color Painting by Artist Ansel Pitcairn



To view this image and more of Mr. Pitcairn's artwork, and for a complete list of his art publications now in print, visit his website

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