Rank By Category

Operationally, defining literacy and literate practices was one of the most difficult aspects of completing this study. Thus, it is important to clarify, but not defend, the operational  definitions. There may be better definitions of literacy, and if so, those factors will be considered and may be added to future analyses. The variables measured here and combined to form the literacy rankings in this study include thirteen separate variables grouped to form five factors of literacy.

Booksellers: Bookstores (per 10,000 population)

Education: Education Level

Libraries: Library Support, Holdings, and Utilization

Newspapers: Newspaper Circulation

Publications: Periodical Publishers