Jaltomata oppositifolia S. Leiva & Mione
revised October 2018  
Link to Jaltomatahomepage The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, Connecticut 06050-4010, United States of America. Novon 17: 49-58. 2007
  Links to the Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru, and northern Peru

Figure 1. Jaltomata oppositifolia. Lustrousness of leaves is evident; corolla maculae (green) are evident through the base of the corolla
(photo taken in Peru by Thomas Mione, Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 674)

See the Jaltomata huancabambae page for a table comparing this taxon with taxa that are most similar. Comparison with J. salpoensis is not in the table but is presented here:

Jaltomata oppositifolia
has an upright habit, conspicuous corolla lobules, stamens are 5--6.5 mm long, anthers are yellow, and the style is 6.5--8 mm long. Jaltomata salpoensis, on the other hand, is sometimes prostrate, the crateriform corolla lacks lobules, stamens are 2.5--3 mm long, anthers are white, and the style is two mm long (Leiva & Mione, 1999).

Figure 2. Jaltomata oppositifolia

Corolla maculae (green)
are easy to see as are
the corolla lobules


Photo by Thomas Mione in Peru

Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 674



Table 1. Description of Jaltomata oppositifolia.

Character Description of Jaltomata oppositifolia Figures
Habit & Height
Shrub to 1.2 m high, learning on other vegetation or erect  
Branches, young
nearly terete, purple  
woody, terete, glabrous, to 2 cm in diameter, brown  
Leaves, size usually geminate, to 4 X 1.7 cm, lustrous, coriaceous  
shape the blade eliptic to lanceolate, the apex acute, the margin entire  
hairs glabrous, the margin ciliolate  
petiole 7-10 mm long  
axillary, with 2- (3 buds) flowers per inflorescence  
8--17 mm, terete, purple, glabrous  
8--17 mm, somewhat angular, purple, glabrous  
Calyx when flowering: color, size green, 6.5 - 8 mm across  
shape / position during anthesis nearly rotate during anthesis, the lobes deltoid  
hairs glabrous except for scattered glands on both faces, the margin ciliolate  
at fruit maturity at fruiting to 17 mm across  
Corolla color
white with two green maculae flanking the radial vein extending to the tip of each lobe  
shape and size
crateriform-infundibular (broadly infundibular to rotate, protologue), 12--13 mm across  
10-lobed: 5 lobes alternating with 5 lobules, the lobes triangular  
adaxially glabrous on herbarium specimens but pilosulose with gland-tipped finger hairs 0.1 mm long on fresh specimens, abaxially with glands, the margin ciliate with finger hairs 0.5 mm long.  
no dissecting microscope was used
2012, Mione et al. 674
Stamen length 5 - 6.5 mm long  
filaments off-white, pubescent on proximal 55--70% of the length with unpigmented finger hairs  
anther color yellow  
anther size Length measured with dissecting microscope after stored in 70% ethanol: 1.65 - 1.74 mm X 1.7 wide. Length measured with dissecting microscope, pressed specimens: 1.05 - 1.2 mm.  
anther mucronate/mucronulate no  
insertion of filament into anther    
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen quantity per flower 56,000 (n = 1 androecium) Mione et al. 674, count by Emmett P. Varricchio, 2012, flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
pollen grain size 32.5 - 37.5 µm,
mean 34.8 µm
Mione et al. 674, 15 grains, Michael J. Tanasi, 2012, flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study)
corona no  
capitate, shallowly bilobed (obscured by pressing), green, 0.51--0.84 mm, exserted 2--2.4 mm beyond corolla; gynoecium glabrous except for stigma papillae 40 µm long 3, 5
6.5--8 mm long, off-white 5
disk girdling base of ovary  
Ovules per ovary
81 (n = 1 flower) ovules of both locules were counted; flower collected in Peru (not grown for study)
Herkogamy yes (plants grown in Connecticut) 3
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
subspherical, orange, to 12 mm across at maturity  
Seeds per fruit
to 106 per fruit  
Seed Size
1.45 X 1.15 X 0.45 mm  
Chromosome number
no data
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
no data
Ratio of pollen to ovules 691 (56,000 / 81 ovules, n = 1 flower)  
Character Description of Jaltomata oppositifolia Figures


     Distribution, ecology, and etymology. Jaltomata oppositifolia is known from the type locality and from near the small town of Paraguay, both in Peru, department of Cajamarca, province Chota, between 2,250 and 3,090 m. This species grows in secondary growth and near streams, but is not common. At the type locality it grows at the edge of one of the last remaining old-growth forests we saw in the region. This forest, Bosque El Pargo, was being cut for wood and agriculture when we visited in 1999. This species flowers and fruits in March, May, June and August. The specific epithet derives from the apparent phyllotaxy.


Jaltomata oppositifolia collections studied, geographic and altitudinal distribution,
all Department Cajamarca, province Chota
locality elev habitat date collector listed as J. oppositifolia in S. Leiva's master's thesis (1998) in protologue data entry
Bosque el Pargo (between Llama & Huambos), 6 28 17 S, 79 03 22 W 3050 m border of cultivated fields and forest
19 June 1999
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 2376 (holotype, HAO; isotypes, C, CORD, MO)
not applicable because collected after yes
April 2009
collected at same time and place as the type specimen 3050 m border of cultivated fields and forest
19 June 1999
Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 674 (MO) not applicable because collected after yes October 2018
Bosque el Pargo (between Llama & Huambos) 3090 Terreno después de talado y quemado 14 Aug 1994 S. Leiva G., P. Chuna & J. Cadle 1523 (F, HAO) no yes October 2018
bosque El Pargo (arriba de Huarimarca), Llama-Huambos 3000 bosque húmedo 18 March 1997 A. Sagástegui A., S. Leiva G. & V. Quipuzcoa 15996 (HAO) no yes October 2018
a 1 km del poblado de Paraguay (between Querocoto & La Granja) 2250 Borde de río 7 August 1994 S. Leiva G., P. Chuna & J. Cadle 1380 (CORD, F, HAO). yes yes October 2018



Figure 3

Jaltomata oppositifolia

photo by Thomas Mione at the University of Connecticut Greenhouse, of plants grown from seeds of Mione, Leiva G. & Yacher 674


note: stigma exserted beyond dehisced anthers (herkogamy)

Figure 4

Jaltomata oppositifolia


photo by
Segundo Leiva G.
taken at
Bosque El Pargo

Figure 5. Style and stigma (shallowly bilobed) of Jaltomata oppositifolia. Units along bottom are mm; Mione et al. 674, photo by Thomas Mione, July 2012, after flower was stored in spirits for years, field collected (not from a plant grown for study).