Jaltomata paneroi Mione & S. Leiva

revised 2017  
The information on this page may be cited as a communication with
professor Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University, Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010 USA, and
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo, Peru

Rhodora 99: 283-286. 1997.

Link to Jaltomata homepage
Link to table of Jaltomata species that produce red nectar
Link to local name(s) of J. paneroi
Link to report(s) of fruits of this species being edible
Link to the Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru
Link to Jaltomata species of northern Peru
Figure 1. Jaltomata paneroi flower containing red nectar
(Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione & Leiva 705, a print that was later scanned)
Figure 2. Side view of Jaltomata paneroi flower containing red nectar
(Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al 705, originally a print that was later scanned)
Figure 3. Fruits of Jaltomata paneroi. Those that are green are unripe; the orangish fruits are nearly ripe or ripe.
(Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al. 705, originally a print that was later scanned)
Figure 4. Branches, leaf and flowers of Jaltomata paneroi. Both flowers cotain red nectar
(Photo by Thomas Mione, Mione et al 705, originally a print that was later scanned)


Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Perennial shrub to 1.5 m high  
Branches, young
with a dense vestiture of short, dendritic and unbranched, uniseriate trichomes  
Leaves, size simple, to 6 cm long X 4 cm wide  
shape ovate, the apex acute, the margin entire or subentire  
hairs densely pubescent on both surfaces with intermixed unbranched, forked, and dendritic trichomes to 0.5 mm long, the trichomes never gland-tipped  
umbelliform, 3--4 (6) flowered;
infructescence one or two fruited
axillary, 3--5 mm long, densely vestitured  
7--10 mm long, densely vestitured  
Calyx when flowering, color and size 13 mm in diameter during anthesis (flattened against ruler for measuring), the lobes as long as wide, acuminate  
shape / position during anthesis planar Figure 2
hairs abaxially densely pubescent  
at fruit maturity to 25 mm diameter  
Corolla color
green, the lobes darker green than the lobules  
green spots no  
purple ring no  
puple in base of corolla yes: "lila el 1/4 basal externa e interiormente" Leiva et al. 2016
shape and size
campanulate with a revolute limb, 5 - 10 mm long X 23 - 25 mm in diameter when pressed, 30 - 35 mm diameter fresh  
lobes / lobules
10: 5 lobes alternating with 5 smaller lobules  
corolla veins with dendritic trichomes abaxially  
yes Figure 1
Corona no  
Stamen length including anther
5, ultimately 9 - 10 mm long,
elongating at unequal rates according to my observations but S. Leiva (1998) wrote "filamentos iguales" and illustrated the stamens having equal lengths.
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla    
postion of stamens: a) before anthers dehisce, b) after anthers dehisce a & b: connivent for life of flower  
base expanded laterally?    
filaments pubescent at base, with unbranched or occasionally forked trichomes to 0.6 mm long  
anther color yellow with a green connective on outer face  
anther size 2.0--2.9 mm long prior to dehiscing, 1.5--1.6 mm long after dehiscing  
anther mucronate mucronulate observations made Aug 2013, flowers of Mione 533 preserved in ethanol.
insertion of filament into anther    
anthers of a flower open simultaneously?    
pollen quantity per flower 61,000 - 121,000  
pollen grain size 31.85--37 µm in diameter, mean 33.72 µm
(n= 23 grains)
flowers were preserved in 70% ethanol; anthers were crushed in cotton blue (30 min); Mione 533 grown in Connecticut.
pollen grain size 29.63--34.57 µm in diameter, mean 30.97 µm
(n= 23 grains)
flowers were pressed and dried; anthers were crushed in cotton blue (30 min); wild plant, herbarium specimen Leiva & Guevara 1130
corona no  
bilobed, 0.84--1.0 mm X 0.78--0.88 mm, exserted beyond anthers 1.5--4.5 mm  
Style length
11 mm (measured on specimens pressed in Peru);
13 - 14 mm (Leiva 1998, probably a living specimen)
Ovules per ovary
110--180 per ovary  
Nectar blood-red, copious  
Protogyny Anthers remain undehisced for a few hours after anthesis.  
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
orange, 12.5 X 19 mm (size based on one fruit measured in Peru Mione 705)
Seeds per fruit
300 (n = 1 fruit collected in Peru Mione 705)
Seed Size
1.52--1.68 mm long X 1.24--1.41 mm wide X 0.44--0.52 mm thick, suborbicular to reniform, alveolate  
Chromosome number
Growability in Connecticut, USA
Easy to grow in a greenhouse  
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
Yes: A few fruits were set in a pollinator-free greenhouse (without manual pollination) during the spring of 1992.  
Seed Germination
no data
Character Description of Jaltomata paneroi Figures on this web page

This species is similar to several other species that have red nectar; to compare these species, follow this link

Flowers of Jaltomata paneroi remain open 3 to 5 days (n = 5 flowers) in the greenhouse. Flowers are protogynous: anthers remain undehisced for a few hours after anthesis. Filaments remain parallel to the style during the life of the flower, and the corolla remains open at night.

In contrast, in many other Jaltomata the filaments are oriented such that the dehisced anthers are positioned a few mm away from the stigma, and the corolla closes at night, reopening the next morning.

Seeds of Panero et al. 854 were grown as Mione 533.

The specific epithet was chosen to honor José L. Panero, who sent the holotype and seeds to T. M.


Jaltomata paneroi grows in Peru, Department of Cajamarca, between 3,240 and 3,520 meters of elevation along roadsides with shrubs. Flowering and fruiting occur in June and July.


Collections of Jaltomata paneroi including Geographic Distribution and Altitudes
Peru, Department Cajamarca (chronological order)
collector (herbarium)
Cajamarca carretera Cajamarca-Celendín, aprox. 9 km NW de La Encañada, frente al poblado de Quinuamayo
very steep slope with acidic black soil, in an area that is generally moist but somewhat dry in July and August
2 Jul 1987
José L. Panero, I. Sanchez, S. Leiva G. and C. Sagástegui 854 (HOLOTYPE: CONN; ISOTYPES: CPUN; specimens of plants grown from seeds of the type collection were numbered as Mione 533: CONN, MO, NY).
Cajamarca Jalca de Kumulca (ruta a Celendin)
17 Jun 1975
A. Sagástegui A. et al. 8111 (HUT, MO, NY)
Cajamarca Quinuamayo, entre La Encañada y jalca de Kumulca
ladera con arbustos
17 Jun 1975
I. Sánchez V. 1613 (F, CPUN)
Cajamarca La Encañada-Kumulca
(ruta a Celendín)
sobre plantas de Rubus, al costado de carretera
28 Jun 1994
S. Leiva G. & J. Guevara 1130 (F, HAO, HUT)
Cajamarca 07 04.014 S
78 20.062 W
no data
among shrubs at roadside
5 June 2005
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 3315;
T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 705


Frutex pilis dendriticis simplicibusque dense vestitus. Folia dense pubescentia. Pedunculi et pedicellique breves. Corolla campanulato-rotata, viridis, 10-lobata, nectar copiosum rubrum ad basim exudans.


For illustration to be added:

(A) Habit. (B) Flower. (C) Corolla expanded. (D, E, F) Stamen in ventral, dorsal and lateral view, respectively; these share a scale bar. (G) Gynoecium. (H) Berry with calyx. Drawn from S. Leiva and J. Guevara 1130.

Literature Cited