Jaltomata sanmiguelina Mione & S. Leiva González


revised 1 October 2018



Link to Jaltomata homepage


The information on this page may be cited as a communication with professor
Thomas Mione, Central Connecticut State University,
Biology Department, Copernicus Hall, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050


Link to the Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru

Link to Jaltomata species of northern Peru



University proceedings. Volga Region. Natural Sciences 2015


Figure 1, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Pistillate-phase flower at top; hermaphroditic-phase flower at bottom. Upside-down flower at right. Ripe fruits at left. Units along bottom are mm. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 2, above. Flower of Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 3, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Flower and ripe fruit. Smallest units are mm. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 4, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Ripe fruit and pistillate-phase flower. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.


Collections of Jaltomata sanmiguelina showing Geographic and Altitudinal Distribution. Peru, Department Cajamarca







San Miguel

S 6 56.298"
W 78 49.96"

3,185 m


19 March 2007

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 738

S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 3641

San Miguel

S 6 56 20.7"
W 78 49 57.7"

3,190 m


13 May 2015

T. Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 846*

S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5856, TYPE

* herbarium specimen lost; photos, DNA sample and flowers in alcohol all very carefully numbered



Distribution and Ecology

Jaltomata sanmiguelina has a limited distribution and is apparently endemic to the collection area. Despite having made many plant collections in numerous places at different times in nothern Peru, we have found J. sanmiguelina only along the road at the type locality. We attempted to also find it, but did not find it, within 10 min walk of the type locality along a man-made canal above the type locality, and along a stream some 100 m below, both having natural vegetation along them. Not finding J. sanmiguelina nearby, where there was natural vegetation, suggests that either this species is rare and or that it has a specific habitat requirement.

Where it grows it is a member of the grass and shrub community on the edges of the road. It appears to prefer moist, deep, clay soils, sometimes rocky, with plenty of humus and lives associated with Eucalyptus amygdalina Labill. "Eucalyptus" (Myrtaceae), Hypericum laricifolium Juss. "Chinchango" (Linaceae), Chusquea serrulata Pilg. "Suro" Zea mays L. "Corn" (Poaceae), Sambucus peruviana Kunth "elder" (Adoxaceae), Rubus floribundus Kunth "bush" (Rosaceae), Pinus sylvestris L. "Pine" (Pinaceae), among others.

Phenology: We have seen and collected J. sanmiguelina twice, in March of 2007 and May of 2015; it was flowering and had ripe fruits on both occasions. Based on S. L. G.’s extensive experience in northern Peru, he contributes that it likely flourishes with the return of rains in November or December and flowers and then fruits from February until May. Some open flowers had stamens having undehisced anthers, and other open flowers on the same plant at the same time had stamens having dehisced anthers, and so we characterize the flowers as protogynous. The anthers of any one flower do not dehisce simultaneously. The first time we collected this species we encountered it at dusk and noticed that the flowers were closing for the night.


Current Status

Using the criteria of the IUCN (IUCN 2012) J. sanmiguelina is considered critically endangered (CR). The extent of its range is smaller than 100 km 2; the only place where it has been collected is the type locality (Criterion B1). There are also less than 50 mature individuals in the population (Criterion D). However, we have not determined whether there is a decline in its geographic range. There is urgent need for a thorough study of the ecology, distribution and population structure of this species to clarify its condition.

Local name: "frutilla" (S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 5856, HAO) Etymology. The specific epithet refers to San Miguel, a prosperous and beautiful province in Department Cajamarca, Peru. Among its hills, valleys and rivers there is biological and cultural wealth that needs further study.



One person, walking by while we collected and photographed the type specimen, said that the fruits are not eaten. However, the berries of nearly all other Jaltomata species of the Andes are eaten when ripe, and it is therefore possible that some of the local residents at least occasionally consume the ripe berries.



Figure 5, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Younger stem (left) and older stem (right). Units along bottom are mm. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru

Figure 6, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Side view of flower. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 7, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Flower in side view and ripe fruit. Smallest units are mm. Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.


TYPE: PERU. Department. Cajamarca, Prov. San Miguel, route San Miguel-El Empalme, 6º 56' 20.7 " S, 78º 49' 57.7" W, 3,193 m, 13 May 2015, S. Leiva, T. Mione & L. Yacher 5856 (holotype: HAO; isotypes: CORD, F, MO).

Shrub 0.8-0.9 m high. Older stems brown, terete, having lenticels, glabrous, 7-8 mm in diameter at the base; younger stems nearly terete to slightly angular, purple adaxially and green abaxially, glabrous and shiny. Basal leaves alternate, the distal geminate; the blade elliptic-lanceolate to ovate, to 4.5 cm long X 4.2 cm wide, lustrous-green above, membranous, glabrous on both faces, the apex acute, the base cuneate, most leaves entire but a few of the older/larger leaves toothed, the main vein lighter in color most conspicuously on the lower face; the petiole 5 mm to 2 cm long, glabrous, with a conspicuous main vein on the abaxial surface. Flowers (2-) 3 - 5 (-6) per node; peduncle purple to greenish, nearly terete, glabrous, nearly straight, 9-14 mm long; pedicel purple-lustrous, terete, glabrous, to 1 cm long. Calyx during anthesis dark purple, nearly planar (flat), five-lobed (stellate in outline), 5 to 5.2 mm diameter, touching the back of the corolla (never reflexed), glabrous, the lobes triangular, 1.8 to 2.4 mm long X 1.7 to 1.8 mm wide, the main vein somewhat raised on the abaxial face. Corolla white, having 10 green spots in a ring near the base and 10 purple spots proximal to and aligned radially with the green spots, nearly rotate when fully open, 5-lobed (no lobules), 14 mm diameter prior to anthers dehiscing (the pistillate phase), 16 - 17 mm diameter after anthers dehisce (hermaphroditic phase), glabrous abaxially and adaxially, the margin ciliate with simple, nonglandular hairs. Nectar unpigmented. Stamens 5, angling away from the style 15 – 20 degrees, exserted, of equal length, 2.8 mm long, the lower 50% of the filament intensely purple and villous with unpigmented, nonglandular, simple hairs, the distal (upper) half of the filament whitish in color and glabrous; anthers pale-yellow to whitish prior to dehsicence, not mucronate, glabrous, slightly wider than long prior to dehiscence: 1.5-1.7 mm long X 1.7-1.8 mm in wide. Stigma capitate, darker green than the style, exserted, shallowly bilobed, 0.5 – 0.6 mm in diameter; the style and ovary both pale-green, lighter than the stigma; the style filiform, widening slightly toward the distal end, glabrous, 3.8 mm long; the ovary 1.7-1.8 mm high X 1.9 to 2 mm wide including the annular disk, the annular disk orange and approximately 42% of the height of the ovary. Berry orange at maturity, globose, compressed at the poles, without persistent style, to 7.5 mm (pole to pole) X 8.5 mm in diameter; calyx at fruit maturity planar, purple, 7 - 11 mm in diameter. Seeds 20-39 per fruit, kidney-shaped, brown, grid-foveolate, 1.7-1.8 mm long X 1.3-1.4 mm wide.

Additional material examined. PERU. Department Cajamarca, Prov. San Miguel, 6º 56' 20.7" S, 78º 49' 57.7" W, 3,185 – 3,193 m, 19-III-2007, T. Mione, S. Leiva G., L. Yacher 738 & S. Leiva G., T. Mione, L. Yacher 3641; 13-V-2015, T. Mione, S. Leiva & L. Yacher 846 (no herbarium specimen: flowers preserved in 50% ethanol and dessicated leaves for extraction of nucleic acids only).

Jaltomata sanmiguelina was included in the molecular phylogeny of Miller et al. (2011, as “J. SanMiguel”) where it was found to be most closely related to J. oppositifolia (98% bootstrap value). However, the accession of “J. salpoensis” used in that study was collected in Department Amazonas, and is no longer identified as J. salpoensis (now understood to be endemic to Department La Libertad). If phylogeny is again investigated, we anticipate that J. sanmiguelina will be most closely related to J. salpoensis, because only these two species have a 5-lobed corolla (no lobules), a ring of purple spots at the base of the corolla, stamens about 3 mm long, and short styles (Table _). J. sanmiguelina is also akin to J. huancabambae, not included in the study of Miller et al. (2011). All four of these species grow in northern Peru, have glabrous, lustrous leaves, purple pedicels, a white corolla that lacks radial thickenings, unpigmented nectar, pale-yellow to whitish anthers, and orange fruit. These species are compared in Table _.

UNDER CONSTRUCTION: Add table comparing similar species from protologue


Figure 8, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Flowers. Mione et al. 738, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 9, above. The large plant growing on a steep roadside bank and having white flowers is Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Mione et al 738, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 10, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Mione et al 738, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 11, above. The large plant growing on a steep roadside bank having white flowers is Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Mione et al 738, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 12, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Flowers, and flower bud near center. Mione et al. 738, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 13, above. Jaltomata sanmiguelina. Two anthers dehsiced, the one of the left may be dehiscing, anthers at top and bottom right undehisced.
Mione et al. 846, photo by T. Mione in Peru.

Figure 14, above. View from hotel in San Miguel de Pallaques, Department Cajamarca, Peru. Photo by T. Mione

Figure 15, above. Dr. Leon Yacher is in a red shirt near the center holding a camera near collection locality of Mione et al. 738. Photo by T. Mione

Above: The machine on the left is repairing the road. The pickup truck is our rented vehicle. We were waiting while the road was repaired.
Near collection locality of Mione et al. 738. Photo by Thomas Mione


The molecular (Waxy) data groups collection Mione et al. 738 with J. oppositifolia (98% bootstrap value).

However, J. oppositifolia has corolla lobes and lobules alternating, while the corolla of J. sanmiguelina lacks lobules!




Frontispiece of Publication of This Species