Jaltomata yacheri Mione & S. Leiva

revised 15 Apr 2014  
The information on this page may be cited as a personal communication with
Thomas Mione, Biology Department, Central Connecticut State Uiversity, New Britain, CT 06050-4010, USA
Segundo Leiva G., Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Av. América Sur 3145, Casilla postal 1075, Trujillo Peru
Novon 17: 49-58. 2007
Link to Jaltomata homepage
Link to the Jaltomata of Cajamarca, Peru
Link to the Jaltomata of northern Peru
Link to local names including of this species
Link to list of Jaltomata species having edible fruits, including this species
Figure 1. Anthers of the flowers on the left and right are undehisced; anthers of the middle flower have dehisced
(Mione, Leiva & Yacher 737, photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 2. Jaltomata yacheri Mione & S. Leiva. --A. Branch with leaves, inflorescence and fruit. --B. Flower, lateral view. --C. Calyx, oblique view. --D. Corolla dissected to show the insertion of the stamens. --E. Stamen, ventral view. --F, G. Anther and distal portion of filament, lateral and dorsal views, respectively. --H. Gynoecium including basal disk. --I. Berry with calyx, lateral view. --J. Seed. --K. Embryo of the seed. Scale bar of E also applies to F & G. (S. Leiva et al. 2372, drawn by S. Leiva G.).
Character Description Figures on this page
Habit & Height
Suffrutescent, to 1.5 m  
Branches, young
green, terete, villous with dendritic hairs that are not gland-tipped  
terete, glabrous, green  
Leaves, size
geminate, the blade to 8 X 4.6 cm, somewhat coreaceous  
shape the blade ovate, the apex acute, the base rounded to somewhat truncate, the margin entire  
hairs abaxially and adaxially pilose with finger or dendritic hairs, the margin ciliate  
petiole to 1.8 cm  
axillary or less commonly arising from a stem dichotomy, 2- to 3- (4 including buds) flowered  
6 to 10 mm, terete, green and lanate  
5 to 10 mm, terete, green and lanate  
Calyx at flowering
green, to 18 mm across, the lobes triangular, abaxially velutinous with dendritic hairs, adaxially with glands, the margin ciliate  
shape / position when flowering rotate to reflexed 1,2,3,4,6,7
at fruit maturity green and 18 to 20 mm across  
Corolla color
bright blue-purple  
shape and size
urceolate with a reflexed to revolute limb, the tube 8 -- 13 mm long, the base 10 -- 12 mm in diameter, with 5 cavities full of nectar between the expanded bases of the stamens, the limb 18 to 20 (-25) mm across including lobes  
10-lobed: 5 lobes alternating with 5 lobules, all triangular,  
the tube glabrous within, abaxially with simple, forked and dendritic hairs mostly on the main veins; adaxially pilosulose with finger hairs 0.2 to 0.3 mm, the terminal cell of which is rounded and densely staining; the margin ciliate  
Stamen length including anther
13 -- 17 mm,
varying in length within a flower prior to anther dehiscence
length stamens exserted beyond distal end of corolla (applicable if corolla has a well-defined tube) exserted 5--14 mm beyond the mouth of the corolla  
base expanded laterally? yes, as viewed ventrally 2E
filaments filaments dark purple at base, otherwise pale-green, pubescent on proximal 20--25% of the length with unpigmented simple hairs  
anther color yellow 1
anther size 2.4 -- 3.3 mm  
anther mucronate/mucronulate not mucronate  
insertion of filament into anther   2E,2F,2G
anthers of a flower open simultaneously? probably not: the 5th flower in figure 3 (below) may show nonsimultaneous anther dehiscence, with the anthers of the longer stamens dehiscing first 3
pollen quantity per flower 117,700 (Mione et al. 737)
274,000 (Mione et al. 670)
flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study), counts by Emmett P. Varricchio
pollen grain size    
corona no  
capitate, bilobed, green, 0.84--1.5 mm,
the papillae 60--90 µm long
1.5--2.0 cm, pale-green  
disk girdling base of ovary  
Ovules per ovary
184 (n = 1, Mione et al. 737)
230 (n = 1, Mione et al. 670)
flowers collected in Peru (not grown for study), counts by Thomas Mione 2013
translucent field observations, 1999 and 2007
Herkogamy yes 1,2,3,4
Protogyny yes (field notes Mione et al. 737)  
Fruit color (at maturity) and size
subspherical, orange and to 11 mm across at maturity, the style somewhat persistent  
Seeds per fruit
55 to 108 per berry  
Seed Size
Chromosome number
no data
Growability in Connecticut, USA
no data
How long does it take from flower to ripe fruit?
no data
no data
Seed Germination
no data
Ratio of pollen to ovules
640 ((n=1 flower, Mione et al. 737)
1191 (n =1 flower, Mione et al. 670)
Character Description of Jaltomata yacheri Figures on this web page
Figure 3. Stamens of Jaltomata yacheri elongate while the flower is open, and then anthers dehisce. The style may also elongate while the flower is open. From left to right: developmental sequence from protogynous to functionally hermaphroditic (Mione et al. 737, photo by Thomas Mione).


Jaltomata yacheri is similar to J. contumacensis. J. yacheri grows to 1.5 m high, has a bright blue-purple corolla, the corolla limb becomes revolute, the calyx is reflexed during anthesis, and the anthers are not mucronate.

Jaltomata contumacensis
, on the other hand, grows to four m high (with the support of other plants), has a light-green corolla with a nearly rotate limb, the calyx is rotate during anthesis, and the anthers are sometimes mucronate.

Distribution, ecology, etymology and uses: Jaltomata yacheri is known only from Peru, department Cajamarca, province Hualgayoc, in the vicinity of the city of Hualgayoc, where it is locally common on the side of the road between 3,460 to 3,515 m elevation.

The specific epithet was chosen by T. M. and S. L. G. to honor Dr. Leon Yacher.


Figure 4. Underside (abaxial face) of leaf showing on right, photo by Leon Yacher
Figure 5. Fruits (immature) of Jaltomata yacheri (Mione et al. 737, photo by Thomas Mione).
Figure 6. Mione et al. 737, photo by Leon Yacher.


Table 2. Specimens studied, all Peru, all Department Cajamarca:

Province Locality
elevation m
collector data entry
TYPE: Hualgayoc near Hualgayoc
18 June 1999
Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 670 (holotype, MO; isotypes, F, HAO) April 2007
Paratype: Hualgayoc near Hualgayoc
18 June 1999
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 2372 (CORD, HAO) April 2007
Hualgayoc entering Hualgayoc coming from Bambamarca,
6 45.741, 78 36.136
19 March 2007
Mione, S. Leiva G. & L. Yacher 737 April 2007
Hualgayoc entering Hualgayoc coming from Bambamarca,
6 45.741, 78 36.136
19 March 2007
S. Leiva G., T. Mione & L. Yacher 3640 (CORD, HAO) April 2007

Figure 7.

Flowers are evidently protogynous:

anthers of these flowers have not yet dehsiced;

photo of type specimen, Mione et al. 670,

by Thomas Mione,

a print was scanned,

introducing dust onto the image.

Figure 8. Thomas Mione handling Jaltomata yacheri plant, photographed by Leon Yacher, Mione et al. 737.


Suffrutex; laminae ad 8 x 4.6 cm, aliquantum coriaceae, piliferae simplices vel dendriticae; inflorescentia 2--3 (-4)-flora; corolla urceolata, cyanea-purpurea, limbus 18-20 (-25) mm latus, reflexus, lobis 10; stamina 13--17 mm, antherae 2.4--3.3 mm; styli 1.5--2 cm.